The Action plan for the implementation of the ICZM Protocol in the Mediterranean (2012‐2019) was adopted at the Seventeenth Meeting of the Contracting Parties to the Barcelona Convention held in Paris, from February 8 to 10, 2012. The purpose of the Action Plan was primarily to support the Parties in their ratification process of the ICZM Protocol what has led to the entry into force of the Protocol on March 24, 2011. The goal of supporting all the Parties in their transposition and implementation of the Protocol was also set. The CAMP Var, its results and lessons learned will therefore serve as an example of practical implementation of the ICZM Protocol in the Mediterranean.
Challenges for France
At the national level, the National Marine and Coastal Strategy is being developed. The decree No. 2012‐219 of February 16, 2012, specifies the conditions for the development of this strategic document, as well as indications for the development of the related strategic shoreline documents. The national consultations in France are carried out at the level of the Maritime Shoreline Councils and of the National Council of Marine and Coastal Areas. At the 10th Maritime and Coastal Economy Congress, which was held on December 3, 2014, Mr. Manuel Valls, Prime Minister, announced that a debate would take place in the Parliament in 2015 to define the national maritime and coastal strategy. On January 14, 2015, a first discussion on French maritime policy was held in the National Assembly concluded by Mr. lain Vidalies, Secretary of State for Transport, the Sea and Fishing. During parliamentarians' interventions, importance was given to integrated coastal zone management and particular attention paid to regional/local projects.
The CAMP Var will focus on the establishment of a consultative body, being a place of mediation and governance at the local scale of the County, complementary to the Maritime Shoreline Council. This structure was conceived as a laboratory to stimulate a dynamic dialogue, the development of a governance mechanism and to highlight the successes and difficulties encountered in the implementation of integrated coastal zone management policies.
The distribution of powers between the state and its decentralised services, public institutions, local authorities and the combination between international conventions, European standards, national laws and local planning schemes can be complex. Coastal management is sometimes seen as a "legal and administrative mix" synonymous with difficult understanding of "who does what" or "who should do what". This echoes to the lag between an administrated and a lived territory.
The area of the project
The Var department covers an area of 5,973 km2 and has 432 km of the coastline of which 80 km account for ten islands and islets. 70 km are occupied by military establishments, 40 km are urban areas and ports, while 92 km beaches and 230 km are rocky shores.
Its population is 967,000 inhabitants of which 554,197 living in the 27 coastal municipalities (between Saint Cyr les Lecques and St. Raphael). This population has a strong summer variation since the Var department is the first French tourist department outside the Paris area and the marine area is subject of intense maritime activity.
On its coastal territory, the Var department includes a number of coastal and maritime planning structures and strategies, new or old, such as the National Park of Port‐Cros created in 1963, marine parts of three Territorial Coherence schemes (ScoTs) ‐ Provence Méditerranée Grimaud / Saint‐Tropez and Var East, as well as the Bay contract of the harbour of Toulon 2013‐2018.
In accordance with the agreement signed between France and UNEP/MAP, the Steering Committee (CoPil) of the project endorsed an Action Plan that can be scalable. The main actions are:
- An institutional diagnostic study of ICZM planning to analyse planning policies and coastal management approaches in regards to the implementation of the ICZM Protocol; and the definition of a methodology for ICZM policy evaluation and monitoring.
- A subjective mapping to represent the territory as it is lived: what actors and local stakeholders think of ICZM in the Var? And what do they think about ICZM? and identify obstacles or levers to decision making. • The Var County will be a pilot territory for the Donia smartphone application, to enhance land and coastal interactions with the sea users. It is intended to promote good practices to reduce environmental pressures and allow sea access for all.
- "Archipelago of excellence and pilot islands ". Build operational pilot actions on the Var islands to help develop an exemplary modus operandi based on, and by accompanying, local initiatives in this direction (international label for sustainable islands, etc.).
- Adaptation to climate change and flooding risks in coastal areas. In relation with the National Strategy for Integrated Management of the Coastal Stripe, and local initiatives identified as mature and accomplished, the PAC will support operational actions in the Var, and contribute to the development of a methodology that will highlight the commonalities and idiosyncrasies, and seek to achieve a socio-cultural analysis of the decision process.
- An overview synthesis on the harbours and navigation basins, to enhance realised or ongoing activities by different actors in the Var.
- Brainstorming and capitalisation on maritime spatial planning.
- A Land-Sea Forum to foster the emergence of a common destiny (Article 14 of the Protocol).
- The contribution and promotion of a network of ICZM actors in the Mediterranean.
Round table of ICZM actors in the Var
At the inception meeting, a round table attended by Jean-Louis Loeuillard, Sea and Coastal department at the County Council of the Var, Pierre Boissery, the Rhône Méditerranée Corse Water Agency, Claire Mignet the Port-Cros National Park, Guirec Queffeulou, Bay Contract of Toulon Provence Metropole and Jean-Philippe Morin, Marin Observatory Gulf of Saint-Tropez. This round table was open to the public and led to a lively start for the joint reflection that the PAC Var wants to stimulate.
This open debate highlighted key points: the need for shared knowledge by policy makers and the general public of the ICZM Protocol, the need for joint reflection on assessment tools and monitoring of policies and coastal management initiatives to set the conditions for a self-assessment necessary to develop more efficient approaches, to continue the efforts to link science and decision making to revitalize the County Scheme for the Coasts and the Sea, to promote synergies between the consultative bodies, also in order to avoid similar initiatives while enlarging the circle of consultation. The priority is to address the elected officials who rely on expert opinion and feelings of the public. The project will pay particular attention to integrate these three audiences.
In order to be effective, the CAMP dynamics will initially focus on certain key areas and themes. By its non-institutional dimension, its limited duration, the CAMP Var project is seen as an asset to bring a fresh look.
Three working groups
The CoPil considered as a priority to define three working groups so as to step forward on the following themes:
- erosion, submersion and Maritime Spatial Planning;
- archipelago of excellence;
- navigation basins and harbors.
Another working group dedicated to subjective mapping will help build an approach and a tool that will be useful in providing a different perspective on these selected topics.
In close cooperation with the members of the CoPil - each group will be led by one of its members - the different actors of the Var coastal and maritime areas will get involved and take part in these discussions and these actions.
"GREEN" project management
CAMP Var actors committed to "think green" throughout the project activities and will seek to make decisions taking into account their environmental impacts. The aim is to include "green thinking" in the management process of each project activity through the development of techniques and promotion of ecological systems, e.g. addressing the issue of rising transport emissions and excessive consumption of paper (paperless system to apply to communication, meetings and alike).
Organization and structure of the project
The National Project Co-ordinator is responsible for the general supervision of all project activities at local, national and international levels, and those implemented by national participants in co-operation with UNEP/MAP. He will work closely with PAP/RAC's Co-ordinator of the CAMP France (Var) and with the French PAP/RAC Focal Point, the Director of the European and International Delegation of Conservatoire du Littoral. For part of its contribution to the project, the Conservatoire provides an office for the National Co-ordinator. The Steering Committee, including members of the Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy, the General Council of the Var, the Water Agency Rhône Méditerranée Corse, the Conservatoire du Littoral and PAP/RAC of UNEP/MAP will be responsible for the overall supervision of the Project.