The principal activity of PAP/RAC is Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) in the Mediterranean. ICZM is recognised as the way forward for the sustainable development of coastal zones since the 1992 Rio Conference (the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development) and is characterised by a distinctive integrated approach to providing solutions to the complex environmental, social, economic and institutional problems of the coastal zones.
PAP/RAC with support of other MAP Components provides technical assistance, guidelines, and methodologies for the practical delivery of ICZM in the Mediterranean. The revised MAP Components’ mandates, including the PAP/RAC mandate, were adopted by the 16th Ordinary Meeting of the Contracting Parties in Marrakech, Morocco, November 2009, and reflect their contribution for the implementation of the ICZM Protocol, the cross-cutting issues in particular. The specific objective of PAP/RAC is to:
”…contribute to sustainable development of coastal zones and sustainable use of their natural resources. In this respect, PAP/RAC’s mission is to provide assistance to Mediterranean countries in the implementation of Article 4(i) of the Barcelona Convention, meeting their obligations under the ICZM Protocol and implement the Mediterranean Strategy for Sustainable Development (MSSD), 2005, and by carrying out, in particular, the tasks assigned to it in Article 32 of the ICZM Protocol, 2008.”
As defined by Article 2 of the ICZM Protocol, “Integrated coastal zone management means a dynamic process for the sustainable management and use of coastal zones, taking into account at the same time the fragility of coastal ecosystems and landscapes, the diversity of activities and uses, their interactions, the maritime orientation of certain activities and uses and their impact on both the marine and land parts”.
A need for ICZM
The coastal zone is an area of intense activity, an area of interchange within and between physical, biological, social, cultural and economic processes. Changes, at any point in any part of the systems, can generate chain reactions far from their point of origin, and possibly in a totally different system whose environmental conditions will be subsequently altered.
The sustainable use of resources can be seriously affected by man-caused or natural events or processes, such as:
Impacts generated by major development projects;
Accumulative impacts generated by a number of development projects which may be individually insignificant but which together may precipitate environmental damage;
Gradual changes, such as climate change with a corresponding rise in global sea level which will particularly affect low-lying areas;
Sudden natural episodic events of immense impact, such as earthquakes; and
Sudden man-caused disasters, such as major oil spills or accidental discharges of industrial wastes.
The interdependence of activities and resources in the coastal zone explains why a sectoral approach to coastal zone management has not been able to achieve satisfactory results. Each economic sector generates a range of impacts on various coastal resources, but their combined impacts generate acute problems for the resource base on which their survival depends, and cause conflicts between sectoral interests. A cost effective solution to one sector may be economically and environmentally detrimental to the needs of another sector. Therefore, it has now been recognised that effective management of coastal zones should be based not only on an analysis of individual activities and their impacts, but also on the combined effects of sectoral activities on each other and on coastal resources.
Managing complex systems requires an integrated approach capable of bringing together the multiple, interwoven, overlapping interests of the coastal zone in a co-ordinated and rational manner, harnessing coastal resources for optimum social and economic benefit for present and future generations without prejudicing the resource base itself, and maintaining the ecological processes.
Competition over the allocation and use of coastal and marine resources, including space, is under constant increase. There is, therefore, a need to bring sectoral activities together to achieve a commonly acceptable coastal management framework.
ICZM remains the key tool for delivering the wide range of sectoral and institutional policies in the coastal zone, and the ICZM Protocol for the Mediterranean represents a major achievement in global terms in delivering a common agenda for a regional sea.
However, among the key issues constraining the full and effective implementation of the Protocol in the Mediterranean area:
ICZM is still localised and relatively short-term and project based. Major “up scaling” is still required to meet fully the natural and anthropogenic challenges facing the Mediterranean.
ICZM needs a strategic context to avoid piecemeal and potentially wasteful activity and to make a substantive impact.
The practice of ICZM is still largely seen as an environmental activity, and is yet to fully engage those institutions and actors responsible for the social and economic pillars of sustainability.
The planning and management of the marine and terrestrial areas of the coast remain rigidly divided between policies, administrations and institutions. More specifically, spatial planning for both the terrestrial and marine zones, a major tool for ICZM, needs strengthening and better implementation.
Future risks and uncertainties, notably climate change and natural disasters such as floods, earthquakes and tsunami, need to be fully integrated into the ICZM process.
ICZM’s role as the key tool for the implementation of the ecosystem approach in the coastal area is not yet recognised.
Uniquely, the ICZM Protocol provides a vehicle to address these issues in a concerted approach across the whole Mediterranean region. The MAP - PAP/RAC Action Plan for the implementation of the Protocol seeks to translate these provisions into a programme for ICZM that matches the high ambitions of the Protocol.
Characteristics of ICZM
ICZM requires a far more extensive analysis than the sectoral approach, and by incorporating external effects, it should generate economically, socially and ecologically acceptable policies for coastal and marine management.
Fundamental to ICZM is the comprehensive understanding of the relationships between coastal resources, their uses, and the mutual impacts of development on the economy and the environment.
As stated in the ICZM Protocol, the objectives of ICZM are to:
a) facilitate, through the rational planning of activities, the sustainable development of coastal zones by ensuring that the environment and landscapes are taken into account in harmony with economic, social and cultural development;
b) preserve coastal zones for the benefit of current and future generations;
c) ensure the sustainable use of natural resources, particularly with regard to water use;
d) ensure preservation of the integrity of coastal ecosystems, landscapes and geomorphology;
e) prevent and/or reduce the effects of natural hazards and in particular of climate change, which can be induced by natural or human activities;
f) achieve coherence between public and private initiatives and between all decisions by the public authorities, at the national, regional and local levels, which affect the use of the coastal zone.
The ICZM process
In coastal areas, where adapting to rapid change is often required, flexible decision making calls for a continuous process of planning, implementation and goal-adjustment. In a resource management process, such as ICZM, decisions are being taken in three separate stages: initiation, planning and implementation.
The ICZM Process is designed for guidance – adaption to individual local circumstances will dictate changes to this process within the overall framework. The process is structured into 5 sections representing the key stages of the ICZM Process, as follows: Establishment; Analysis and Futures; Setting the Vision; Designing the Future; and Realising the Vision.
It is important to stress that the ICZM Process is designed not just to produce a plan or a strategy for a coastal area. In the end, a plan or strategy’s success or failure depends on its ability to catalyze change. This is what matters - not the specific process, nor the form of the strategy document, but whether or not it results in positive action.
Plan Preparation and Implementation Process: Tasks
Tools and Techniques for ICZM
The nature of coastal development, the environmental interactions of sectoral activities, and the complex management requirements imposed on decision makers and professionals involved in ICZM require the employment of numerous specific tools and techniques. Most of them are based on methodologies which can be handled by national expertise available in many developing countries. The following tools and techniques are, among others, recommended in the application of ICZM (based on the experience of MAP – PAP/RAC in the Mediterranean):
evaluation and assessment techniques (Environmental Impact Assessment - EIA; Strategic Environmental Impact Assessment – SEA; risk analysis, with particular stress on climate change; Carrying Capacity Assessment – CCA; economic evaluation; prospective studies; Vulnerability and Suitability Assessment); and
instruments for implementation: regulatory and economic; bargaining; negotiations and voluntary agreements (meetings with partners and key stakeholders, structured interviews, workshops, brainstorming); indicator description (governance, environmental and socio-economic indicators); IT-based Tool Evaluation Checklist; Imagine - Systemic and Prospective Sustainability Analysis; conflict resolution techniques; etc.
The Way to a Regional Framework for ICZM in the Mediterranean 2017 - 2021 Background Document
(SP ICZM-MSP_Final.pdf / 4.75 KB)
UNEP/MAP-PAP/RAC, GWP-Med and UNESCO-IHP. (2015). An Integrative Methodological Framework (IMF) for coastal, river basin and aquifer management. M. Scoullos (ed.). Strategic Partnership for the Mediterranean Sea Large Marine Ecosystems (MedPartnership). Split, Croatia.
(IMF Guidelines.pdf / 1,33 MB)
PNUE/PAM/PAP : Plan côtier de Reghaia. Split, Programme d'actions prioritaires, 2015.
UNEP/MAP/PAP: Guidelines for the preparation of National ICZM Strategies required by the Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) Protocol for the Mediterranean. Split, Priority Actions Programme. 2015.
PAP/RAC 2014. Final global results of the ICZM stock-taking. Split, pp 52 + Annexes.
PAP/RAC, 2014. Common conceptual framework for the implementation of ICZM. Split, pp 50.
(D21C_Version2_submitted_13 02 2014_2.pdf / 1,91 MB)
PAP/RAC, 2014. PEGASO ICZM Governance Platform: Guidelines and Lessons learned. Split, pp 96.
(PEGASO_D2_4_A_ICZM_Platform_V6_140324.pdf / 1,33 MB)
PAP/CAR.2013. LE PROCESSUS GIZC: Une feuille de route vers un littoral durable. Split: PAP/CAR. p. 34.
(ICZM Process FR.pdf 3.991 KB)
|PAP/RAC. 2012. THE ICZM PROCESS. A Roadmap towards Coastal Sustainability. Split: PAP/RAC. pp 35 + Annexes.|
(ICZM Process.pdf 3.991 KB)
|UNEP/MAP/PAP: Analysis and Lessons Learned from National Strategies to the benefit of National ICZM Strategies in the Mediterranean. Split, Priority Actions Programme, 2011.|
(Analysis and lessons learned from national strategies_F.pdf)
UNEP/MAP-METAP SMAP III Project. The Way Forward for the Mediterranean Coast. Final ICZM Policy Report. A framework for implementing regional ICZM policy at the national and local level.PAP/RAC. Split, June 2009.
PAP/CAR. 2013. Le processus GIZC. Une feuille de route vers un littoral durable. Split: PAP/CAR. p. 34
(Processus GIZC_Final.pdf 1.583 KB)
PAP/CAR. 2005. Gestion des zones côtières en Tunisie. Split: PAP/CAR. pp vi + 44.
PAP/RAC. 2005. Coastal Area Management in Malta. Split: PAP/RAC. pp xi + 87.
PAP/RAC. 2005. Coastal Area Management in Turkey. Split: PAP/RAC. pp vi + 69. ENG
PAP/RAC. 2005. Operational Strategic Action Plan for ICAM in the Mediterranean. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. 17.
(Download STRATEGY FOR ICAM.pdf / 67 KB)
Report of the Expert Workshop to Prepare the ICAM Strategy in the Mediterranean (Split, 17-19 March 2005)
|PAP/RAC. 2002. Compendium of PAP technical reports and studies (1995-2001) / Recueil de rapports techniques et d'études du PAP (1995-2001). Split: PAP/RAC. pp. 29.|
PAP/RAC, Split, 2002. REPORT of the Meeting on the Mediterranean ICAM Clearing House (Split, May 20-21, 2002).
PAP/RAC, Split 2002. METAP-PAP/RAC Training Course on ICAM for stakeholders in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia and Slovenia, 25-29 November 2002, Split.
UNEP-MEDU, 2002. REPORT of the Meeting on Legal and Management Instruments for the Protection of the Mediterranean Coasts (Sevilla/Cabo de Gata, 12–15 December 2001). Athens
PAP/RAC 2002. For a Sound Coastal Management in the Mediterranean./Pour une bonne pratique de gestion des zones côtières en Méditerranée. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. iii + 40
This publication focuses on the situation, trends and perspectives in the Meiterranean coastal regions, and the MAP’s concerns, achievements and future actions in safeguarding the qualities of coastal areas, as well as securing the sustainable development of the benefits of their population. It presents the progress in the approach to coastal area management in the region in the last 25 years. This approach has been transformed from sectoral environmental management to ICAM. It also shows how coastal areas have become the central pillar in the most of the policies that MAP is proposing to the Contracting Parties of the Barcelona Convention in their efforts towards achieving sustainable development. This publication was presented at the Johannesburg Summit in 2002.
UNEP/MAP/PAP. 2001. White Paper: Coastal Zone Management in the Mediterranean / Livre blanc: Gestion des zones côtières en Méditerranée. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. x + 74. ENG/FRA
This "White Paper" is the product of a thorough screening and analysis of a number of studies, statements, workshop reports and manuals, most of them elaborated in the framework of the Mediterranean Action Plan (MAP). It is intended to stimulate a lively debate around issues and policy options aiming at the promotion of Integrated Coastal Area Management (ICAM) in the Mediterranean. The document outlines the need for a "proactive" policy option, a strategic vision for the Mediterranean, and an Action Plan for Coastal Zone Management. In addition, if offers basic guidelines for proactive policy option implementation and presents certain key issues for the reader’s considerations and feedback. In the first part of the document are presented the main data on the Mediterranean and its coastal zones (historical and geographical overview; state of the environment and environmental problems; pressures and trends in the field of urbanisation and tourism; scenarios). The second part is dedicated to the initiatives and actions related to the management of the Mediterranean coastal zones (MAP, Euro-Mediterranean Partnership, METAP, EU Demonstration Programme, national initiatives and other). The third part deals with the future of the Mediterranean and proposes policy options and recommendations for ICAM and sustainable development.
UNEP/MAP/PAP. 2001. Good Practices Guidelines for Integrated Coastal Area Management in the Mediterranean / Principes de meilleures pratiques pour la gestion intégrée des zones côtieres en Méditerranée. Split: PAP/RAC. pp iv + 52. ENG/FRA/ARB
These Guidelines were prepared by the PAP/RAC of the Mediterranean Action Plan (MAP – UNEP), within the framework of the implementation of the priority action on Integrated Coastal Area Management (ICAM), which has been financially supported by the European Commission. Based on the experience gained from the implementation of ICAM projects, this report was prepared not to provide guidelines or evaluate the already implemented projects or programmes, but to provide planners and decision makers with the knowledge of some good examples of implementing ICAM. This report is to demonstrate good practices for ICAM, and stimulate new ideas and further action for integrated management of coastal areas in a hope of creating their better future.
GABBAY, S. 2000. Coastal Zone Management in Israel. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. 65.
PRIEUR, M. and GHEZALI, M. 2000. National legislations and proposals for the guidelines relating to integrated planning and management of the Mediterranean coastal zones / Législations nationales relatives à l'aménagement et à la gestion des zones côtières en Méditerranée et propositions de lignes directrices. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. ii + 88. ENG/FRA
This document is a synthesis of responses to a questionnaire sent to Mediterranean countries with the aim of becoming acquainted with the state of national legislations relating to integrated planning and management of the coastal zones. The questionnaire is based on the responses received from 16 countries (i.e. Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Egypt, Spain, France, Greece, Israel, Italy, Lebanon, Libya, Malta, Morocco, Monaco, Slovenia, Tunisia, and Turkey) and the European Union to 22 questions concerning the existence of a framework legislation specific for the coastal zones, the definition and delineation of the coastal zones, public institutions in charge of planning for the coastal zones, institutional instruments for co-ordination, co-operation at the local and institutional level, information on data relating to coastal zones, land ownership and access to the coast, land-use planning at the coast, control of industrial, commercial and leisure activities at the coast, protection of natural sites, pollution, inspections and sanctions, information and participation of the public, transboundary co-operation on coastal zone management issues, and legal problems encountered in relation to disposing of a satisfactory coastal zones legislation. After having examined the responses to the questionnaire and territorial obstacles to an integrated coastal zone management, the authors have formulated a set of principles to support an integrated coastal zone strategy. Five annexes to the document contain the integral text of the questionnaire, a table recapitulating the responses, the recommendations of the Mediterranean Commission on Sustainable Development (MCSD) relevant to coastal zone management, the model law on sustainable management of coastal zones of the Council of Europe, and a status of signature and ratification of the Convention for the Protection of the Mediterranean Sea against Pollution and its protocols as of February 17, 2000.
RANDIC, A. and TRUMBIC, I. 1998. Coastal Area Management in Croatia/Aménagement des zones côtières en Croatie. Split: PAP/RAC. pp iv + 34. ENG/FRA/CRO
This publication describes achievements of Croatia in the field of planning, protection and management of its coastal areas, while presenting the basic human and natural resources, relevant problems and possibilities of development and use of these resources. The intention is to present the true situation of coastal planning and management, as well as the institutional bases for tackling the future problems and challenges. The publication is devised in 3 chapters, namely: Tradition of coastal management; Coastal areas and islands (environment impact, population, economic activities); and Practice of coastal management (strategy and politics, regulation of urban development, coastal management tools, administrative and institutional structure, role of NGOs, management plans, international co-operation), including some examples of successful coastal management projects. The ideas presented in this document lead to the conclusion that, with certain efforts, the coastal areas in Croatia can be used yet remain preserved, as the generations of Croatians have been doing for more than a thousand years.
TRUMBIC, I., HATZIOLOS, M., COCCOSSIS, H., HENOCQUE, Y., JEFTIC, Lj., JUHASZ, F. and KALAORA, B. 1997. Assessment of integrated coastal area management initiatives in the Mediterranean: experiences from METAP and MAP (1988-1996)/Evaluation d’Initiatives e de Gestion Intégrée des Régions Littorales Méditerranéennes: Expériences du METAP et du PAM (1988-1996). Athens: METAP/MAP/PAP. pp xiii + 58. ENG/FRA
Under the Environmental Programme for the Mediterranean (EPM), the Mediterranean Environmental Technical Assistance Programme (METAP) was initiated by the World Bank and the European Investment Bank in partnership with the European Union and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). METAP’s mission was to assist Mediterranean countries to prepare investment projects addressing effectively constraints to sustainable development. This assessment reviews ICAM initiatives to identify the successful ones and the relevant constraints, to outline the lessons learned, to propose policy level recommendations, and inform METAP and MAP of the results of the study. The assessment was carried out on three levels: classification of 30 interventions, analysis of 14 of these initiatives for which the questionnaires were received, and analysis and evaluation of 9 case studies (the Coast of Albania, the islands of Cres and Losinj in Croatia, the coastal part of France, the island of Rhodes in Greece, the Coast of Israel, the Coast of the Liguria Region in Italy, the Area of Al-Hoceima in Morocco, and the Bay or Izmir in Turkey). At the project level, the interventions were analysed with regard to the performance, integration and sustainability dimension. At the programme level, three MAP CAMP interventions were analysed, as well as five METAP projects, and three case studies labelled as other initiatives. Several lessons could be learned from this evaluation in terms of their performance, integration and sustainability. Riparians in the region are urged to consider a number of overall policy recommendations, which were formulated on the basis of this evaluation. In addition, some specific recommendations were addressed to METAP and MAP.
MAP/UNEP-PAP/RAC. 1995. Guidelines for integrated management of coastal and marine areas with particular reference to Mediterranean basin. UNEP Regional Seas Reports and Studies No. 161. Nairobi: UNEP/MAP-PAP/RAC. pp vi + 79. ENG/FRA/CRO
The document sets down guidelines for integrated management of coastal and marine areas (ICAM) which is required to lay the foundation for sustainable development which will reduce or eliminate pollution, rectify other impacts, and prevent these occurring in the future. It is addressed in the first place to national policy makers who need to provide the necessary political will, who can create the administrative and legislative framework, and who can generate the financial means to set up and operate integrated management. The presented guidelines are not a rigid set of prescribed steps and procedure. Rather, they represent a flexible approach consisting of alternative options serving the same goal. The document discusses common problems and conflicts in coastal areas; explains the concept and stages of the ICAM process; discusses the necessary institutional, legal and financial arrangements; illustrates tools and techniques for ICAM; and describes instruments for implementation. For a closer insight into the ICAM process, the document provides annexes containing definitions, descriptions of main coastal resources, and some selected examples of ICAM.
|JUHASZ, F. 1994. Recent Experiences and Needs for Improvement of the Application of Economic Instruments in the Management of Coastal Areas - The Experience of OECD Member States. PAP-4/1994/W.1/2. Split: PAP/RAC. pp 9. ENG|
In discussing the results of research into economic instruments, the document (a) specifies who undertook the analysis, what type of economic instruments have been assessed, and what were the precise objectives of the analysis; (b) gives a critical review of the application of economic instruments in OECD countries; (c) suggests possibilities for the improvement of economic instruments; and (d) recommends specific studies to be conducted on economic instruments in well defined coastal areas.
SIMUNOVIC, I. 1994. Analysis of the Application of Economic Instruments in Coastal Management in the Mediterranean Region/Analyse de l'application des instruments économiques à la gestion des zones côtières en Méditerranée. PAP-4/1994/W.1/1. Split: PAP/RAC. pp vi + 29.
This analysis of the application of economic instruments in the Mediterranean coastal areas is based on the experience of OECD member-states and information collected through a questionnaire which was filled out in Albania, Cyprus, Egypt, France, Croatia, Israel, Italy, Libya, Morocco, Syria and Tunisia. The analysis shows that the common problems most frequently encountered in the application of economic instruments are inadequately organized administration and its poor efficiency; discrepancy between economic instruments and the practice; uncertainty as regards the use of taxes for maintenance and improvement of natural resources; the human factor; small fines; and the lack of appropriate monitoring of the state of environment and the use of economic instruments.
RADELJA, T., BERLENGI, G., PAVASOVIC, S., and VELDIC, V. 1992. Training Programme on Geographic Information Systems - Summary Report. CAMPs/1990-92/GIS/SR. Split: PAP/RAC. pp 22.
This document is a synthesis of experiences gained through a training programme on the Geographic Information System (GIS) addressed to national teams of planners, and conducted within the framework of four site-specific Coastal Area Management Programmes (CAMPs) carried out in Croatia (the Kastela Bay), Greece (the island of Rhodes), Turkey (the Bay of Izmir), and the Syrian coastal area. The report contains a number of GIS applications (problem-oriented and inventory-related applications) supporting the planning activities within the CAMPs.
UNEP and PAP/RAC. 1991. Integrated Planning and Management of the Mediterranean Coastal Zones - Documents produced in the first and second stage of the Priority Action (1985-1986) / Planification intégrée et gestion des zones côtières méditerranéennes - Textes rédigés au cours de la première et de la deuxième phase de l'action prioritaire (1985-1986). MAP Technical Reports Series No. 61. Athens: MAP/UNEP-PAP/RAC. pp 437.
This technical report presents a wide range of approaches, methods and techniques, various experiences, and the state of art in the field of integrated planning and management in Mediterranean coastal zones. The report is divided in two thematic categories: (a) national reports; and (b) case studies which are presented in alphabetical orded of the countries that produced them. The purpose of this technical report is to help the responsible local and national authorities, institutions and experts in pursuing their various tasks in the frame of planning and management of development, protection and enhancement of the Mediterranean coastal environment.
MLADINEO, N., VILLI, M., RADICA, T., MARTINEC, D., FREDOTOVIC, M., and STOSIC, S. 1991. Assessment and Ranking of Environmentally Suitable Sites for Thermo-Power Plants in the Eastern Adriatic (A Case Study). PAP-4/MP/MA.2. Split: PAP/RAC. pp 57.
In the process of decision making for coastal zone management, one of the most important requirements is a correct selection of sites for specific structures taking into account all major issues, particularly those which may have strong environmental impacts. This paper illustrates a methodology of site evaluation and ranking under specific conditions prevailing in Mediterranean coastal areas. It studies the possibility of applying the multi-criterional analysis on a concrete example (site selection for a power plant in the coastal area of Croatia) using PROMCALC i GAIA software packages. The paper also explains a procedure for the criteria development and evaluation.
MLADINEO, N. 1990. Multicriterional Analysis for Environmentally Sound Siting of Development Projects Applicable in the Mediterranean Region. PAP-4/MP/MA.1. Split: PAP/RAC. pp 42.
This paper presents a methodologically developed system approach to the problem of site selection and ranking, which can be used as the basis for the multi-criterional analysis to be performed applying the PROMETHEE method. This method is described in detail, and is proposed as standard methodology for the selection of sites for industrial and other infrastructure facilities in the Mediterranean Region. the numerical example of site selection for small power plants illustrates the advantages of this method, as well as the possibility of expanding it by using the concept of "Decision Support System".