PAC Albanie

Zone du projet


ERS/RAC

L'Albanie, située à l'ouest de la péninsule balkanique, est essentiellement un pays montagneux. Selon les estimations, la population comptait 3,41 millions d'habitants en 1992. La côte albanaise s'étend sur une superficie de 470 kilomètres, avec de nombreuses lagunes, zones de sable et dunes. La partie adriatique de la côte connaît un changement dynamique incessant dû à la force des cours d'eau et le profil sismique de la région, tandis que la côte ionienne est rocheuses avec des petites plages et des régions de sable limitées. Du fait d'un relief aux contours déchiquetés, les rivières sont torrentielles avec une grande force érosive. L'Albanie est située dans la ceinture climatique méditerranéenne, avec des étés chauds et secs et des hivers généralement doux avec des pluies abondantes. Le pays abrite un riche patrimoine culturel et une diversité de sites archéologiques comprenant les sites préhistoriques, les monuments et les nécropoles des villes illyriennes et les ruines des châteaux du haut Moyen âge.

Principaux problèmes et questions

  • L'Albanie est un de plus pauvres pays d'Europe. Une basse productivité et des investissements considérables, en combinaison avec le manque d'ouvriers qualifiés, sont les principales contraintes à la croissance.
  • Il n'y a pas de restrictions pour l'utilisation des herbicides, pesticides et fertilisants chimiques dans l'agriculture et le résultat en est la contamination des rivières, canaux et eaux. Des dégâts portés à la vie aquatique et des épisodes d'eutrophisation ont été constatés comme conséquence de la décharge non appropriée des déchets industriels dans l'environnement aquatique et des pratiques agricoles.

  • La qualité de l'air est un grand souci environnemental, particulièrement autour des industries et des régions urbaines. Les centrales électriques, les usines de coke et les chaudieres électriques sont des points névralgiques de la pollution de l'air. Les gaz obtenus des processus d'extraction endommagent les fôrets dans une vaste région.
  • La plupart des réserves naturelles et des parcs nationaux d'Albanie, situés pres de la côte, sont utilisés pour la chasse par les étrangers.
  • En général, il n'y a pas de législation environnementale ou elle est complètement inadéquate.

Activités du projet

Le PAC consacré à la région côtière albanaise, mis en œuvre dans la période 1993-1995, a été orienté vers la création et la promotion du processus de développement durable par le biais de la planification et de la gestion intégrées des ressources côtières. Quatre composants, avec 15 activités, ont été mis en ouvre, à savoir:

  • analyses prospectives (analyses systémiques et prospectives, scénarios environnement-développement);
  • développement et application d'instruments légaux (développement de la législation environnementale, inventaire des sources de pollution, mise en ouvre du protocole "tellurique" et du protocole sur les zones spécialement protégées, monitoring de la pollution marine);

  • études sectorielles (programmes de formation pour le développement de l'agriculture et de la sylviculture, aménagement du territoire dans les zones sismiques, implication des changements climatiques attendus, protection et gestion des sites historiques);
  • gestion intégrée des zones côtières et marines dans la région de Durrës-Vlore (gestion intégrée de la région de Durrës-Vlore, gestion des ressources en eau des bassins fluviaux d'Erzeni et d'Ishmi, SIG, ECA pour le tourisme, EIE).

Les objectifs de ce programme étaient les suivants:

  • en général, la protection et l'utilisation rationnelle des ressources côtières pendant une période de temps relativement longue. Le but d'un tel programme est de déterminer et recommander des mesures adéquates pour la gestion dans l'intention de résoudre les conflits environnementaux déja existants et de tracer le chemin d'un développement dynamique;
  • à long terme, développer la zone côtière albanaise en conformité avec la capacité de l'environnement et créer les conditions favorables à l'établissement d'un système de planification et de gestion intégrées des ressources dans la région;
  • à court terme, offrir, à l'intérieur des activités individuelles du projet, des solutions aux problèmes environnementaux pressants. Lors de l'élaboration de ces solutions, une attention particuliere a été accordée aux objectifs stratégiques du projet.

Principaux résultats du projet

Le travail sur la formulation et la mise en ouvre du PAC pour l'Albanie a été un exercice extrêmement utile, parce qu'il a amélioré considérablement les capacités des institutions albanaises responsables des différents aspects de la gestion des zones côtières. Les institutions qui ont participé à ce programme sont maintenant capables de poursuivre indépendamment le travail et d'appliquer leur savoir-faire dans d'autres régions albanaises.

La composante renforcement des capacités de ce PAC a été une partie très importante et extrêmement utile. En plus des stages de formation, une attention particuliere a été accordée à la formation individuelle.

Dans le cadre de chaque activité individuelle, de nombreuses recommandations ont été faites et elles devraient être mises en ouvre au travers des activités de suivi.

Suivi

Grâce aux très bons résultats du PAC, au PAP et à son associé Dobin Milus International (DMI) a été confiée, par la Banque mondiale, la préparation d'un plan général de gestion des zones côtières pour les deux autres zones côtières albanaises - celles du nord et du sud. Les objectifs principaux de ce plan étaient de contribuer à la protection de la biodiversité, au développement du tourisme et au renforcement des capacités institutionnelles.

Publications/Documents

 

PAP/RAC 1999. Water Resources Management Study for the Erzeni and Ishmi Rivers: Water Resources Assessment. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. vi + 142. ENG

This document presents the second part of the Water Resources Management Study, containing a description and analysis of water resources of Erzeni and Ishmi rivers. 

 

MARGETA, J., and PAVASOVIC, S. (preparation of GIS data base). 1996. Water Resources Management Study for the Erzeni and Ishmi Rivers: Water Resources Assessment. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. iv + 61. ENG

One of the activities carried out by the Priority Actions Programme Regional Activity Centre (PAP/RAC) within the framework of MAP Coastal Area Management Programme (CAMP) "Albanian Coastal Region" is the Water Resources Management. The long-term objectives of the activity are to contribute to the protection and rational use of water resources in Albania as a whole and, particularly in its coastal area, and thereby to create necessary conditions for development of tourism and other activities. The immediate objectives are to assess the availability of water resources and their quality, to propose measures for pollution prevention, to analyse the existing water resources management system, and to recommend a system of monitoring and sanitary control. Furthermore, the objective of this activity is also to present the water balance of the existing and future needs for water, and to recommend a feasible approach to the planning and implementation of development projects. The main output of this activity, as decided, is Water Resources Management Study for the Erzeni and Ishmi Rivers. The Study presents , in an integrated manner, all the characteristics of water resources of these two watersheds in order to enable proposing the optimal system of their exploitation and protection in accordance with present and future demands of the region. Also, this Study sets priorities with regard to the relevant inventions in this area. The result of the Study is to enable future activities to be precisely defined and rational solutions to be sought out for sustainable management of water resources of the Erzeni and Ishmi rivers. This document presents the first part of the Water Resources Management Study, containing a description and analysis of water resources of Erzeni and Ishmi rivers. 

 
PAP/RAC. 1996. The Region of Durresi-Vlora: Coastal Zone Management Plan. CAMP/1993/AL/CZMP. Split: PAP/RAC. pp xvii + 87. ENG

This report is one of the outputs of Integrated Management of Coastal and Marine Areas of the Durrësi-Vlora Region initiated through "Coastal Areas Management Programme" (CAMP) for Albania. A certain number of issues actually triggered the launching of the process of coastal zone management in Albania. The most important overall goals of the CZM Plan are the following: to preserve ecological integrity; to renew or rehabilitate damaged resources; to ensure that natural resources are equitable between generations; to encourage complementarity rather than competitive activities; to preserve and promote social equity and introduce the participatory approach; and to provide a mechanism for capacity building and planning. This programme is expected to provide the following benefits: improvement of the state of the environment; incorporation of environmental considerations into planning activities and the decision-making process; enhancement of the local capacities in resolving various development and environmental problems; transfer of knowledge from relevant international organisations to national and local institutions; and creating conditions for responding to some accidental situations.
 

PAP/RAC. 1995. Albania Coastal Zone Management Plan: Final Report - Phase One. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. xix + 118. ENG

This report is part of an overall Coastal Zone Management Action Plan for the northern and southern parts of Albania's coastal zone. This project and this report focus only on the coastal area, which without doubt represents one of the most valuable assets of Albania from the points of view of development and environment. The most important overall goal of the CZM Plan is to preserve ecological integrity through establishing ecologically sustainable limits for resource use. The strategic objectives of the Plan are: to promote conservation of Albania’s biodiversity, cultural heritage and coastal and marine-related tourism and ecotourism industry; to enhance employment creation opportunities and institutional capacity; and to recommend a series of investment projects that will help “kick-start” the coastal economy in an incremental way.

 

PAP/RAC. 1995. Albania Coastal Zone Management Plan: Final Report - Phase Two. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. xiv + 80. ENG

This report covers the results of PAP/DMI studies in Phase Two of the Coastal Zone Management Plan (CZMP). The main objective of Phase Two of the CZM plan is to elaborate the Coastal Investment Projects which were identified as priority in the Phase One. The Regional Concept Plan Management Areas establishes a context for preparing a conceptual management plan for the three coastal investment projects (and 12 sub-projects): Velipoja, Karaburuni and Saranda-Butrinti. Based on the management plans for Velipoja, Karaburuni and Saranda-Butrinti, a preliminary master plan for each project was prepared to further detail project components and establish an organisation and framework of land use, transportation, and services infrastructure. The potential investment options and an assessment of coastal investment project costs and probable benefits are based on an analysis of the detailed project components identified by the preliminary master plans.

 

GNILSEN, R. 1994. Albania Coastal Zone Management Phase I - Sections on Environmental and Infrastructure Aspects. Split: PAP-RAC/DMI. pp. 39.

This sectorial study presents the location and quantity of water resources in the Adriatic and Ionian Coasts, the existing state of coastal and marine uses and environmental effects, the use of coastal land for agriculture and industry (problems and potential); for infrastructure and energy; and for urban and rural development. Departing from the analysis of the existing situation, the study gives a proposal of those components of the infrastructure systems which need to be improved as a matter of priority. These components are water supply, liquid and solid waste management, energy, transportation and telecommunications.

 

SALATHE, T. 1994. Conservation and Wise Use of Lagoons and Coastal Wetlands - Northern and southern coast, excluding the Durrës-Vlora region. Split: PAP-RAC/DMI. pp. 30.

This study is based on the results of a fact-finding mission. In addition to discussing major problems and basic principles for the conservation and use of lagoons and wetlands in the northern and southern part of the Albanian coast, it assesses the state of the Albanian legislation in that particular field, provides an analysis of conflicts and constraints for wetland conservation (human uses, development plans, environmentally sensitive areas), determines priority areas for wetland conservation and use, and offers management proposals for each of these areas (Viluni Lagoon, the coastal wetland belt of Drini, Mati and Ishmi rivers, and the Butrinti wetland complex).

 

TILOT, V.; and JEUDY DE GRISSAC, A. 1994. Diagnostic of the Marine and Coastal Environment of Northern and Southern Albania. Split: PAP-RAC/DMI. pp. 64.

The document contains an excellent description of marine and coastal ecosystems in the study area (location, physical characteristics, geology, land and sea habitats, wetlands, major problems, etc.); identification of environmentally sensitive areas in both coastal regions; and classification of priority conservation areas. In conclusion, the document contains a proposal of strategy of sustainable development with the accent on tourism, preservation of biodiversity, and strengthening of the institutional capacity.

 

CONSTANTINIDES, G. 1994. Socio-Economic Aspects: Population and Economic Activities - Existing Situation, Conflicts, Objectives and Opportunities. Split: PAP-RAC/DMI. pp. 28.

In introduction, the documents speaks of the socio-economic changes following the collapse of communism in Albania in 1990-1992 and of the uncertain future development directions. Separately for the South and the North Coastal Region, it discusses extensively (a) the population dynamics and structure; (b) the economic structure by sectors (industry, agriculture, services); (c) short-term opportunities of economy; (c) location of opportunities and priority areas; and (d) institutional requirements needed to be met in order to achieve the goals of the expected economic growth.

 
CONSTANTINIDES, G. 1994. The Economic Structure and Growth of the Northern and Southern Parts of the CZM Plan. Split: PAP-RAC/DMI. pp. 28. ENG

The document gives an overview of the Albanian economy, and a survey by sectors and future trends for the North and the South Region separately. It specifically discusses the development policy and goals, and recommends the institutional framework needed to enable the desired development. In conclusion, the document recommends the development scenarios for the two regions of the Albanian coast.
 
EFTIMI, R. 1994. Water Resources Master Plan for the Rivers Erzeni and Ishmi. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. 96. ENG (unedited)

One of the outputs of the Coastal Area Management Programme (CAMP), implemented by MAP, PAP/RAC and the Albanian authorities for the central Albanian coastal region (the area of Durrës-Vlora), is the Water Resources Master Plan for the Rivers Erzeni and Ishmi. This study (Plan) was aimed to provide an assessment of available water resources for the needs of residents and the future tourism development, to analyse the existing water management systems, and to recommend measures to prevent the pollution of water resources as well as setting up the relevant monitoring system and sanitary control. Although the text of the study has not been edited, it is included in the reference list because it contains ample data on (a) hydrological and climatic factors; (b) regime and quality of the surface water; and (c) hydrogeology, regime and quality of ground water.
 
PAP/RAC. 1994. The Region of Durrës-Vlora: Coastal Profile (Draft). CAMP/1993/AL/ICAM-CP. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. iv + 60. ENG

This document is the result of the first (data collection and processing) and second (collection of the missing data) phases of work on the Integrated Coastal Area Management Programme (ICAM) for the central part of the Albanian coastal area - the Region of Durrës-Vlora. The document illustrates the profile of that part of the coast and offers details on the components of the environment and resources, socio-economic context and the existing physical systems, institutional aspects, main ecological problems, and development potentials and constraints. The specific value of this document is the identification and description of environmentally sensitive areas and specially protected areas. The Coastal Profile is based on a number of sectorial reports which were prepared by PAP consultants within CAMP "Albania", and it is brought in line with the simultaneously carried out project covering the North and South Coastal Region which is entrusted by the World Bank to PAP/RAC and Dobbin Millus International.
 
INSTITUTE OF SOIL STUDY, TIRANA. 1994. Evaluation of the Soil Resources. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. 27. ENG (unedited)

In addition to data on climate, vegetation and forests, this sectorial report contains exhaustive information on the types and agrochemical contents of soils, and an evaluation of the agricultural land. It also discusses the existing agricultural practices and methods, reclaimed and irrigated areas, impacts of inappropriate agricultural practices, deforestation, forest fires and, particularly, soils with environmental problems which are exposed to pollution and erosion.
 
DEMI, D. 1994. Sectorial Report (Phase I of ICAM): Inventory of the Natural Resource Base. Split: PAP/RAC. pp 44. + maps, figures, diagrams. ENG

This sectorial report is one of the thematic papers prepared following a fact-finding mission which together provide the basis for the Region of Durrës-Vlora Coastal Profile. It contains exhaustive information and data on all types of marine and coastal resources which are of importance for this part of the Albanian coast (mineral resources, renewable energy resources, flora, fauna, specific ecosystems, landscape, and places of cultural and historic interest).
 
TRUTA, S., BAKO, A., SHEHU, A., BERXOLI, A., COCOLI, S., and RRELI, F. 1993. Sectorial Report: Analysis of the Existing Physical Systems. CAMP(1993)/AL/ICAM-SR.4. Split: PAP/RAC. pp 26. ENG (unedited)

This sectorial report fills in the information gaps specifically on the topics of land and sea use, solid waste disposal and energy supply. It focuses on the existing state of land and sea uses, distribution and hierarchy of settlements, transportation and irrigation networks, water supply, liquid and solid waste disposal, and the level of energy supply in this coastal region.
 
BERLENGI, G., MECAJ, N., RULI, E., SHEHU, R., and KOCIAJ, S. 1993. Sectorial Report: Survey of the Physical Environment. CAMP(1993)/AL/ICAM-SR.3. Split: PAP/RAC. pp 14. ENG (unedited)

This sectorial report is yet another thematic document which provides the basis of the Coastal Profile of the coastal area between the towns of Durrës and Vlora. The report presents the basic geographic features of the area; its geomorphology, geology and seismology; and its climatic characteristics and oceanographic data. In conclusion, the report focuses on the coastal morphodynamics as the key element of the physical components of this part of the Albanian coast.
 
ZANETTO, G. 1993. Socio-Economic Context of the Region. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. 9. ENG (unedited)

This sectorial paper contains basic information and data on the Durrës-Vlora Region, specifically concerning (a) population and human resources; (b) size and distribution of population by districts and settlements; (c) demographic structure; (d) employment; (e) level of education; (f) migrations; and (g) economic problems and capabilities.
 
EFTIMI, R. 1993. Groundwater of Durrës-Vlora Area. Split: PAP/RAC. pp 10. ENG (unedited)

This is one of the thematic papers that made possible the preparation of the Coastal Profile of the Durrës-Vlora area. It offers data on the area's groundwater potential, illustrates the main characteristics of major aquifers, determines the well capacity and groundwater extraction, assesses the groundwater quality and potential water supply sources).
 
 
 
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