CAMP "The Kastela Bay" (Croatia)
The Kastela Bay (Croatia) is located in the central part of the Eastern Adriatic Coast, near the city of Split. The area of the bay covers 61 km2. The city of Split counts 200,000 inhabitants with industry discharging an equivalent load of liquid waste. Solin, Kastela and Trogir, other towns around the bay, count additional 100,000 inhabitants. A number of small settlements is densely located around the bay. Major industries located along the coast are shipbuilding, cement production, chemical factories and metal processing. Untreated or partially treated urban and industrial waste waters are discharged into the bay (1/3 of the Split urban waste water).
Major problems and issues
The major problems identified in the Kastela bay area were:
- intensive urban and industrial pollution, affecting the marine environment, biota and resident population;
- overbuilding along the coast, loss of scenic beauties, decline of tourism industry; and
- accidental kill of fish and increased fish mortality, increased content of mercury in biota and sea bottom deposits, eutrophication phenomena in the eastern part of the bay.
This project started in 1988 as one of the first area-specific activities of MAP called Country Pilot Projects (CPPs). Later on, by the end of 1989, this and all the other CPPs implemented by PAP/RAC were expanded to MAP Coastal Area Management Programme (CAMP). The following activities were implemented in the frame of the CAMP dedicated to the Kastela Bay:
1.within the PAP pilot project phase: studies related to pollution, to the natural characteristics of the marine environment and impacts of waste discharge, and pollution monitoring were implemented; and
2.during the CAMP phase: cadastre of pollutants, research programme on the mercury content in the marine environment and the sea bottom, study on impact of climate change on coastal infrastructures, study of optimum level of treatment of urban waste water to be discharged into the bay, EIA of the Split-Stobrec submarine outfall, study on future solid waste disposal system, prospective study (environment-development scenarios) for the area.
Major project results
*Data and information on major pollution problems and ecosystem functioning, allowing formulation of policies and definition of technical solutions;
*A feasibility study for the integrated waste water collection, treatment and disposal system, prepared with the financial support of the World Bank;
On the basis of the project results, after its completion in 1993, the local and national authorities established an implementing agency (the "Eco Agency"), to implement the waste water management project. A loan of the World Bank was secured. Due to the war in Croatia in the 1991-95 period, the start of the project had to be postponed, and is now in its phase of implementation. Finally, it should be noted that the resident population accepted to repay the loan with an increased price for freshwater.
|ZVONARIC, T., BELAMARIC, J., and DRAGANOVIC, E. 1994. Evaluation of Pantan, an Area of Particular Natural and Historical Importance with a Proposal for Its Protection and Utilisation. CAMP/1990-91/KAST/SPA.1. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. 40. ENG|
The objective of this study was to use the available data and perform a complete evaluation of the natural, cultural, historic and ecological potentials of the area of Pantan, which comprises the Pantan spring and river flow which, with the surrounding wetland area and coastline, make a unique natural reservation. Of a particular value are the fortified renaissance mills, the most significant example of "industrial archaeology" on all of the Croatian coast of Adriatic, registered as the monument of 1st category. The basic conclusion of the study is that the area should be integrally protected by registering it as a monument of nature, which would hinder any actions that could threaten its properties.
|FILIPIC, P., and SIMUNOVIC, I. 1992. Development-Environment Scenarios - Management of Natural Resources of the Kastela Bay - the revised version. CAMP/1990-1991/Kast/Sc.1/Rev.1. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. 143. ENG|
Using the experience and results of the Blue Plan in the application of the scenario method at the level of the Mediterranean region, this paper offers a possible practical solution to the problems of scenario method application in the management of coastal resources at local levels. The paper consists of four parts: methodological considerations on the scenario method at local levels; brief description of the Mediterranean and Croatia, and a detailed description of the Kastela Bay area; development of alternative scenarios; formulation of a general framework down to the level necessary for the application of the scenario method as an instrument of the process of natural resources management.
|RADELJA, T., BERLENGI, G., VELDIC, V., and PAVASOVIC, S. 1992. Pilot Application of the Urban Rent Model - GIS Support. CAMP "The Kastela Bay"/1991-1992/UR-GIS. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. 18. ENG|
This paper represents GIS support to the assessment of urban rent as an instrument of urban resources management. It also describes the use of the pcARC/INFO software for interactive analysis using the linear weighted model. The paper is intended for GIS experts and requires a certain knowledge of GIS and the pcARC/INFO software.
|PAP/RAC. 1992. Selection of the Optimum Treatment Level for the Central Treatment Plant. Split: PAP/RAC. ENG|
The overall solution of the Split-Solin and Kastela-Trogir sewerage system envisages the construction of a central treatment plant at the Stupe-Stobrec site. The level of treatment at this plant is defined by legal regulation, on one hand, and the real needs resulting from the assimilative capacity of the Split and Brac channels, on the other. According to the Genoa Declaration, this plant should have at least the second degree treatment and a corresponding submarine outfall, but, it should also meet the legal requirements and sea quality standards of the Republic of Croatia. The objective of this study was to define precisely the needed degree of treatment at the central plant. The results of the study are presented in three volumes, as follows:
MARGETA, J., BARIC, A., GACIC, M. 1992. Selection of the Optimum Treatment Level for the Central Treatment Plant: Volume I - Final Report. CAMP/1990-91/KAST/TR.1/1. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. 53. ENG
TUDOR, M., KRSTULOVIC, N., MOROVIC, M., and SOLIC, M. 1992. Selection of the Optimum Treatment Level for Urban Waste Waters at the Central Treatment Plan: Volume II - Oceanographic Properties of the Split and Brac Channels. CAMP/1990-91/KAST/TR.1/2. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. 78. ENG
MARGETA, J., and JUKIC, D. 1992. Selection of the Optimum Treatment Level for Urban Waste Waters at the Central Treatment Plan: Volume III - Evaluation of the Waste Water Influence upon the Brac-Split Channel Using a Simulation Model. CAMP/1990-91/KAST/TR.1/3. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. 64. ENG
|PAVASOVIC, S. 1992. Training Programme on Geographic Information System - Final Report (Kastela). CAMP/1990-91/Kast/GIS-TC.9. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. 20. ENG|
It was estimated that geographical information systems (GIS) were a useful instrument for numerous forms of management of natural and urban resources. Therefore, within PAP/RAC, and with UNEP support, a team of experts was established and trained to perform training on GIS and on the use of the pcARC/INFO software for the needs of PAP's national projects in the Mediterranean. One of those projects is CAMP "The Kastela Bay", within which this activity has produced the following results, summarised in this report: a team of experts has been trained to perform complex GIS operations and to implement training courses on GIS and the pcARC/INFO software; a GIS laboratory has been established; training courses were organised for the representatives of numerous local institutions; several GIS applications were developed for the needs of the national project.
|BONACCI, O., FRITZ, F., and MARGETA, J. 1991. Study of the Water Resources in the Western Part of the Trogir and Kastela Communes. CAMP/1990-91/YU/WR.1. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. 59. ENG|
The paper analyses the characteristics of the water resources of the western part of the Trogir and Kastela communes (hinterland). The analysis was performed on the basis of available data, in order to determine the potential capacity of the water resources of that area to resolve the water supply problems. It was done through several basic activities: analysis of geological and hydrogeological properties of the area; hydrometeorology and water regime of the area; analysis of users and required quantities; definition of measures and solutions to secure required quantities from both local water resources and other sources. On the basis of results of the analyses, the general conclusion was drawn that the water supply can be solved, on both long and short term, from the local water resources.
|BONACCI, O., FRITZ, F., and MARGETA, J. 1991. Analysis of the Water Resources of the Island of Veli and Mali Drvenik. CAMP/1990-91/YU/WR.2. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. 66. ENG|
The characteristics of water resources of the islands of Veli and Mali Drvenik have been analysed in order to assess their capacity to secure water supply. The analysis was performed through several basic activities: analysis of geological and hydrogeological properties of the area; hydrometeorology and water regime of the area; analysis of users and required quantities; definition of measures and solutions to secure required quantities from both local water resources and other sources. On the basis of results of the analyses, the general conclusion was drawn that the water supply can be solved, on a short term from local water resources, and on a long term from other sources.
|MILOS, B., STOSIC, S., PAVASOVIC, S., and RADELJA, T. 1991. Application of GIS for Evaluation of Soils in the Process of Integrated Planning of Coastal Zones. CAMP/1990-1991/GIS-SP.1-1. Split: PAP/RAC. pp 28. ENG|
The growing need for optimum land use and soil protection calls for a precise assessment of land suitability for various uses. Since the traditional methods proved inadequate, it is necessary to develop new, modern methods of classification and graphic presentation. This paper proposes a semantic model, based on the fuzzy set theory and implemented in geographical data base management system. The basic principles of fuzzy information presentation and processing within the context of leading GIS are explained and illustrated with data from the case study on Trogir. To support the fuzzy reasoning used in the study, a combination of raster and vector GIS software is used for data input, editing and analyses. Development of fuzzy relational geo-data base, as a support for the assessment of land suitability aimed at achieving sustainable development of the natural resources of the Kastela Bay, is proposed.
|BARIC, A., GACIC, M., KRSTULOVIC, N., MARGETA, J., and TUDOR, M. 1991. Environmental Impact Assessment for the Split-Stobrec Submarine Sewerage Outfall. CAMP/1990-1991/YU/EIA.1. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. 72. ENG|
Since the traditional methods of environmental impact assessment for development projects were complicated and commanded high costs, UNEP has developed, in co-operation with MAP/PAP, a simplified method, adapted to developing countries. In agreement with the authorities of the town of Split, this document has been prepared as a pilot-study to test the newly developed method. The proposed method of environmental impact assessment is described, step by step, on the example of the submarine outfall of the urban wastewaters of Split and Stobrec.
|TUDOR, M., and ZVONARIC, T. 1990. An Analysis of Mercury Levels in the Kastela Bay. CPP/1988-1989/YU/Doc.3C. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. 46. ENG |
Due to several decades of discharging into the Kastela Bay, mercury is one of the most significant pollutants of the sea in the bay. This paper presents the results of the study of the distribution of mercury in the water and eco-systems of the Kastela Bay, and gives recommendations for further research.
|MARASOVIC, I., GACIC, M., KOVACEVIC, V., KRSTULOVIC, N., KUSPILIC, G., PUCHNER-PETKOVIC, T., REGNER, D., ODZAK, N., and SOLIC, M. 1990. Case Study of the Red Tide in Kastela Bay. CPP/1988-89/YU/Doc.3B/1. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. 31. ENG|
Over the last decade, the red tide phenomena have regularly occurred every summer, especially in the area around the mouth of the Jadro river, which is heavily burdened by numerous sewerage outfalls, both urban and industrial. Therefore, research has been performed in order to determine the interaction between the concentrations of red tide organisms and state variables, such as pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature and salinity, and the interaction of those organisms and bacterioplankton. On the basis of obtained results, measures are proposed for getting better acquainted with the red tide phenomena.
|GACIC, M., ALFIREVIC, S., BARIC, A., GRBEC, B., JUKIC, S., KACIC, I., KOVACEVIC, V., KRSTULOVIC, N., MARASOVIC, I., MARGETA, J., PUCHNER-PETKOVIC, T., REGNER, D., REGNER, S., and TUDOR, M. 1989. The Natural Characteristics of the Sea Water in the Kastela Bay and the Impacts of the Waste Waters. CPP/1988-89/YU/Doc.2. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. 131. ENG |
Physical and biological characteristics of the Kastela Bay are presented on the basis of data collected over many years of research done continuously since 1930s at the Institute for Oceanography and Fisheries in Split. The paper analyses the characteristics of spatial and time distribution of phytoplankton, zooplankton and bacterioplankton, as well as indicators of faecal pollution, especially with regard to the assimilative capacity of the bay as a whole, and of its eastern part. Some chemical parameters are also analysed as indicators of eutrophication processes, using the hitherto collected data. Special attention was paid to the analysis of mercury contents in the sea water, sediment and marine organisms, since considerable quantities of that element have been discharged into this area over the last 30 years. on the basis of analyses and research, measures are proposed for the mitigation of negative effects of the pollution of the bay.
|ORLIC, M., KUZMIC, M., and PASARIC, Z. 1989. Modelling Wind-Driven Transports in the Kastela Bay. CPP/1988-1989/YU/Doc.3A. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. 43. ENG |
The paper presents the results of a three-dimensional hydrodynamic modelling study of an important part of the circulation in the Kastela Bay, namely of the wind-induced currents and transports.