CAMP "Levante de Almeria" (Spain)
The Contracting Parties to the Barcelona Convention, and the Spanish regional and national authorities agreed at their Ordinary Meeting (Catania, November 2003) to initiate the Feasibility Study (FS) for a CAMP project in the South East coast of Spain.The Regional Ministry of Environment (RMoE) of Andalusia, the Spanish Ministry of Environment (MoE) and the MAP-PAP/RAC started the FS of the CAMP Levante de Almeria in March 2005 and presented its results at the 14th Ordinary Meeting of the Contracting Parts in November 2005.
The CAMP Levante de Almeria project area covers over 219,000 hectares of the South Eastern area of the Almeria Province, in Southern Spain. Of that total, 71,000 hectares correspond to the marine area, and 148,122 hectares is terrestrial, which includes the following eight municipalities: Pulpí, Cuevas de Almanzora, Vera, Garrucha, Mojácar, Carboneras, Níjar and Almeria. The limits of the CAMP Levante de Almeria action area will be considered as flexible, considering the convenience of including some adjoining non-coastal municipalities in the resolution of certain issues that influence some aspects of the management of the coastal area (i.e. management of the river basins, pollution, fishing or the urban planning and economic dynamics).
Figure 1: CAMP Levante de Almeria Project Area
The FS revealed the weakness of the co-ordination mechanisms between the different policies affecting the coastal resources, the lack of effective social participation in the coastal-related decision-making processes, and the difficulty of implementing a sustainable management of the coastal areas due to the spreading of the administrative responsibilities. Through the participatory workshops carried out during the FS, the CAMP Levante de Almeria has been conceived as a demonstrative experience to create and put in practice an organisational structural and procedures to articulate co-ordination mechanisms between the different administrations as well as to promote the social participation in coastal area related decision making. All this to the end of achieving a true integration of the sustainability principles in the set of sectorial actions.
ObjectivesThe objectives put forward for the “CAMP Levante de Almeria”, as presented in the Project Feasibility Study and formulated on the basis of the diagnosis and within the framework of objectives and criteria for the CAMP projects, are as follows:
- To enhance the co-ordination mechanisms between the different government bodies and the area’s social and economic actors for the compatibility and integrability of the policies implemented and the actions carried out.
- To assure administrative co-ordination as the main instrument to guarantee a real integration of environmental policy and the rest of sectorial activities.
- To increase public awareness and participation in the policies and activities aimed at the conservation and the sustainable use of resources.
- To improve the training and capacity building of the area’s management teams, the different economic sectors and the local populations to achieve the project’s objectives and enable the launch of other initiatives related to conservation and sustainability.
- To enhance the sustainability and compatibility with the conservation of the natural environment of the area’s main economic sectors (agriculture, tourism and urban development).
- To make a contribution to the conservation and management of the natural and cultural resources.
A) The horizontal activities
1. Institutional co-ordination and public participation framework: CAMP Levante de Almeria is a very good example of how the ICZM process, its technical and governance part, work hand in hand according to their mandate and capacities. The so called “institutional co-ordination and public participation framework”, i.e. the governance structure of an ICZM process, has three levels, namely, the Coastal Council, the Coastal Commission and the Coastal Forum. Its main task is to provide the contents to an inter-administrative co-ordination structure to join together the different sectorial policies, assuring the social participation in the decision-making processes.
To that end, the introduction of an organisational structure is envisaged that will be headed by the Levante de Almeria Coastal Commission, able to establish at the highest institutional degree agreements of collaboration to undertake the proposed initiatives in an integrated way. The Coastal Commission will also promote the creation of the Coastal Council (socio-economic agents), and the Coastal Forum (participatory forum open to the society). The latter is a platform that involves all citizens or associations in order to catalyses debate on the issues addressed during the development of the project through its website, http://www.camplevantedealmeria.com/en/content/camp-levante-de-almeria
The Coastal Commission dimension brings together public authorities from 21 administrations with responsibilities for coastal management in the project area. These are the eight municipalities in the CAMP Area, the Association of Municipalities of the Levante Almeriense area, the Provincial Council of Almeria, the seven provincial Offices of the Regional Ministries of the Andalusian Regional Government and four organisations belonging to the Central Government. Within the Coastal Commission, two different segments can be identified. Obviously, there are the decision-makers, the political representatives. However, from an operational point of view, it was essential to include the technical segment of the administration identified as a key element in this process. These are the Technical Delegates that form part of the expert groups of the singular projects and are responsible for advising and offering a multi-sectoral viewpoint to the technical consultants running the singular projects. In this way the process facilitates the exchange of experiences and knowledge between managers and scientists and, therefore, it provides backing and scientific rigour to the process. They represent a connection between public authorities and civil society.
The Coastal Council represents the interested parties or public stakeholders that come from social collectives, environmental organisations or business sectors. They are closely connected with the problems of the singular projects, i.e. issues related to water resources, landscape management, natural and cultural heritage, public domain, marine resources and the main productive activities in the area (agriculture, tourism, urban development).
The Imagine workshops as a tool for scenarios building and indicators is a fundamental node where everybody meets. The overall process is managed on a periodical basis by the project Steering Committee.
ICZM Process at work: CAMP Levante de Almeria, Spain
2. Environmental information and Education. The promotion of social participation in coastal related decision-making is one of the key objectives of the CAMP Levante de Almeria. This work line is considered of high importance for the promotion of coastal environments and sustainability social awareness, and the dissemination of the project findings.
The activities proposed are related to public communication (brochures, seminars, marketing, etc), creation and update of a project webpage, and creation of an easy-access GIS of the project area that gathers all kinds of data (documentation, charts and maps, statistics, indicators, images, etc) facilitated by the stake holders. Other activities of environmental education focused to rising awareness among the society will be carried out (i.e. sustainable practices, promotion of sustainability and active participation in urban planning, beach and sea users environmental awareness campaigns, dissemination of the cultural and landscape heritage values, etc).
3. Training and capacity building The FS points out the lack of professional skills, especially among the administrations technical staff, focussed to the specific needs integrated coastal area management (i.e. too much specialisation and uniformity in sectorial aspects of the organisations; lack in integrated management social abilities such as negotiation techniques, conflict solving, co-ordination and co-operation mechanisms, social participation and communication techniques, etc; lack of general knowledge of the coastal environments to complement each sectorial activity and favour the comprehension of the other activities).
B) The Singular Projects
These are conceived to facilitate the participatory processes and decision making over the whole structure of co-ordination and participation of the project. The singular projects will have the following characteristics: a clear diagnosis, proposal of alternatives, easy understanding, prospective nature, etc.
The Singular Projects are conceived as flexible tools, to make a diagnosis and propose possible solutions over specific issues affecting the Levante de Almeria area (i.e. water resources, waste, sustainable tourism, fishing, etc). The singular projects can contribute also to the elaboration or evaluation of an initiative (i.e. SPAMI Management Plan, Evaluation of the acquisition of land for the protection of the coastal environment, etc) proposed by any of the administrations, to be discussed inside the organisational structure of the institutional co-ordination and social participation framework.
C) Project co-ordination, integration and dissemination of results
For the harmonious running of the of the CAMP Levante de Almeria the direction of the project will be represented by the Steering Committee, composed of members of the RMoE of Andalusia, the Spanish MoE and MAP-PAP/RAC. This body will nominate a CAMP Levante de Almeria project General Co-ordinator and Technical Co-ordination Office.
The institutions responsible for the promotion of the CAMP Levante de Almeria are the Spanish MoE, the RMoE of the Regional Government of Andalusia, and the MAP-PAP/RAC.
Figure 2: Organisation structure of the project and Institutional Co-ordination for the area
There are a large number of participants to be involved in the project (although most of these participants have already been taking part of the project all throughout the FS phase): at the national level, the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, The General Directorate of the Merchant Marine and the public entity responsible for the strategic co-ordination of the Spanish port system; at the regional level, the Regional Ministries of Agriculture and Fishing, of Public Works and Transport, of Tourism and Sports, and of Culture; and at the local level, the project will integrate all the eight municipalities within the project area.
The CAMP Levante de Almeria will also reach a significant part of the general population through the participatory processes, the training and communication activities, and through the project webpage. The results expected from the CAMP Levante de Almeria will be a valuable experience for the creation of similar organisational structures nation-wide, promoting this way a true implementation of the ICAM.
|Implementation of the activities||O||O||O||O||O|
Post Project activities
The first major output and activity of this CAMP will be the Sustainable Development Reference Framework as a kind of a long-term document to guide the development of the CAMP area that involves eight municipalities of the Levante de Almeria region. Other more sectorally-oriented activities, such as those related to water resource management, marine protected areas, landscape and heritage, will make a basis for this document. The second activity focuses on the establishment of the Coastal Commission and Coastal Council, both being important for a better co-ordination and integration among the main stakeholders and authorities on ICZM issues and the others important for the participation process. Both activities are related to the implementation of Article 7 and Article 18 of the ICZM Protocol.
The CAMP "Levante de Almería", Spain, has been launched officially on the occasion of the Inception Workshop, which was organised on 15 July 2010.
More information on the CAMP can be found here.
After three years of intensive work and implementation of activities, the CAMP Levante de Almeria enters its follow-up stage. The implementation of the Action Plan, which makes an integral part of the Sustainable Development Reference Framework (SDRF), has started.
At the Final Presentation Conference, held in Almeria on 4 February 2013, the CAMP results and numerous activities were presented and the focus was on the Sustainable Development Reference Framework (SDRF) as the major outcome of the project. The project was evaluated as extremely good and innovative at the European level due to the well structured and functional institutional co-ordination and public participation throughout the project duration on the one side, and very well elaborated technical proposals for the coastal issues on the other, which were both linked with the Imagine workshops as a tool for scenarios building and indicators.
|UNEP/MAP-PAP/RAC. 2013. MAP Coastal Area Management Programme (CAMP) Levante de Almeria: A laboratory to test Integrated Coastal Zone Management. Final Integrated Report. Split: MAP - PAP/RAC. pp. 534|
(levante_almeria_laboratory to test ICZM.pdf / 15.34 MB)
2011. Brochure on CAMP Levante de Almeria: An experience with ICZM.
MAP-PAP/RAC. 2007. Memorandum of Understanding among the Ministry of Environment of Spain, the Regional Ministry of Environment of Andalucia, and the UNEP relative to the Coastal Area Management Programme (CAMP) Levante de Almeria, Spain.
(Download MoU-final.pdf // 1.31MB)
PAP/RAC. 2003. CAMP Mar Menor, Spain; Feasibility Study. Split PAP/RAC. pp. xi + 126
PAP/RAC. 2005. CAMP Levante de Almeria, Spain; Feasibility Study. Split PAP/RAC. pp. x + 299
PAP/RAC. 2007. CAMP Spain Inception Report
MAP-PAP-RAC. 2007. Memorandum of Understanding among the Ministry of Environment of Spain, the Regional Ministry of Environment of Andalucia, and the United Nations Environment Programme relative to the Coastal Area Management Programme (CAMP) Levante de Almeria, Spain