Welcome to PAP/RAC Mediterranean Coastal Alert! This newsletter is regularly updated monthly. It contains abstracts of selected current articles and archives on various environmental themes, in particular those dealing with all aspects of coastal issues. The selection is made from the articles published in the leading international scientific journals. This newsletter is an excellent way of keeping you updated with coastal studies and processes.
Sustainability Science invokes a co-produced approach to research between researchers and managers, involving a shared participatory, policy-centred process. The COREPOINT project which was developed with the principles of Sustainability Science in mind, provides evidence of the effectiveness and challenges involved in the knowledge transfer process between research centres and local government officials involved in coastal research and management. The Expert Couplet Nodes (ECN) embedded within the project aimed to ensure that a paradigm shift in attitude and behaviour towards traditional science and management practices took place. A comparison of the ECN process in two study sites in Ireland provided an opportunity to review the process and outcomes of the collaborative enquiry arrangements by referring to a suite of Sustainability Science principles developed during the project. In doing so, this paper demonstrates how the ECN approach built capacity for improved coastal management and how Sustainability Science has a key role to play in Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM). However, weaknesses in the ECN approach also showed that greater innovation from the ICZM community of researchers, policy makers and practitioners is of critical importance to the roll out of Sustainability Science as a societal solution in the transition towards sustainability. This requires capacity building to deal with the complexity of coastal socio-ecological systems.
Source: V. Cummins and J. McKenna (2010); “The Potential Role of Sustainability Science in Coastal Zone Management”, Ocean & Coastal Management, Volume 53, Issue 12, Pages 796-804; Article in Press, Accepted Manuscript; Available Online: 22 October 2010, under DOI: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2010.10.019.
Satellite remote sensing data, in addition to Geographic Information Systems (GIS), offers an excellent alternative to conventional mapping techniques in monitoring and mapping of geo-hazards areas. One of the most sustainable development projects in Egypt has been accomplished in Sinai, especially along and around the Gulf of Aqaba and the Gulf of Suez. Variations along the coastal zone of the Gulf of Aqaba have been identified through the analysis of multi-temporal satellite images with the aid of GIS analysis. The study area is subject to rapid and increasing changes in land-use/land-cover that resulting from natural and human activities such as flash flooding, seismic activity, landslides, and tourist and urban activities. This is in addition to the construction projects of roads, ports, PowerStation stations, mineral exploration, beaches, and tourist villages resulting from major environmental impacts. The current study aims to use Remote Sensing and GIS tools to investigate, monitor, and assess geo-hazards through the building of a geographical database. Several techniques have been developed over the last decade mostly to study the geological and geomorphologic characteristics of the terrain; land-use and land-cover changes. These are based on satellite imagery and Digital Elevation Models (DEM) to determine the topographic features, and geo-hazards maps. It is concluded that integrated approaches to monitoring can successfully be used to assess the environmental impacts along the Gulf of Aqaba coastal zone.
Source: M.O. Arnous and D.R. Green (2010); “GIS and Remote Sensing as Tools for Conducting Geo-Hazards Risk Assessment along Gulf of Aqaba Coastal Zone, Egypt”, Journal of Coastal Conservation; Received: 26 July 2010; Revised: 20 October 2010; Accepted: 20 October 2010; Online First: 6 December 2010; Published Online: 7 December 2010, under DOI: 10.1007/s11852-010-0136-x.
Many developing countries are expanding their network of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) to meet ambitious marine conservation targets set globally and to develop tourism nationally. This study explores the human dimensions of MPA planning in Mozambique by engaging local resource users in a series of structured discussions about marine resource use, pressures on marine resources, ways to address such pressures, and the potential positive and negative impacts of MPAs on the management of marine resources and livelihoods, from a community perspective. Findings show that the groups and communities interviewed are at best ambivalent towards MPAs while at the same time supporting increased government regulation, including conventional fisheries management measures. The study suggests that without significant community involvement in the choice of marine conservation tools, the drive to establish MPAs to achieve biodiversity conservation and tourism development goals may be counterproductive, at least in terms of poverty alleviation and sustainable resource use. It argues that a wider range of marine conservation approaches and tools needs to be considered in addition to MPAs, taking into consideration local views and institutional capacities.
Source: S. Rosendo, K. Brown, A. Joubert, N. Jiddawi and M. Mechisso (2010); “A clash of values and approaches: A case study of Marine Protected Area planning in Mozambique”, Ocean & Coastal Management; Article in Press, Corrected Proof; Received 4 November 2009; Revised 19 August 2010; Accepted 7 October 2010; Available Online: 15 October 2010, under DOI: 10.1007/s10584-010-9941-3.
This study attempts to identify the key factors that will make a tsunami warning system most effective, to develop a framework in which results of natural science and engineering research can be effectively integrated into coastal natural hazard planning, and to develop a numerical example that illustrates how cost-benefit analysis may be used to assess early warning systems. Results of the study suggest that while the science of tsunami wave propagation and inundation is relatively advanced, our knowledge on the relationships between tsunami generation and undersea earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and landslides remains poor, resulting in significant uncertainties in tsunami forecasting. Probabilities of damaging tsunamis for many coastal regions are still unknown, making tsunami risk assessment and management difficult. Thus it is essential to develop new techniques to identify paleo-tsunami events and to compile and develop size and frequency information on historical tsunamis for different locations since such information is critical for tsunami risk management. An effective tsunami early warning system must include not only the ocean technologies for accurately detecting an emerging tsunami, but also a civil communication system through which the population can be timely warned by the local government and other sources. Since minimising the evacuation time is a key factor to make a warning system effective, adequate pre-event education and preparation of the population must be a critical component of the system. Results of a numerical example of the South Pacific region suggest that investments in a tsunami warning system in the region may lead to significant economic benefits.
Keywords: Tsunami; Warning system; Risk assessment and management; Cost-benefit analysis.
Source: D. Jin and J. Lin (2010); “Managing Tsunamis through Early Warning Systems: A Multidisciplinary Approach”, Ocean & Coastal Management; Article in Press, Accepted Manuscript; Received: 13 October 2008; Revised: 29 July 2010; Accepted: 29 October 2010; Available Online: 5 November 2010, under DOI: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2010.10.025.