Welcome to PAP/RAC Mediterranean Coastal Alert! This newsletter is regularly updated monthly. It contains abstracts of selected current articles and archives on various environmental themes, in particular those dealing with all aspects of coastal issues. The selection is made from the articles published in the leading international scientific journals. This newsletter is an excellent way of keeping you updated with coastal studies and processes.
The existence and distribution of European marine reef habitat (1170), defined as rocky substrates and biogenic concretions in the UE habitats Directive, remain incomplete especially for the Mediterranean region. It is necessary to cartography the habitats but also it is important to classify and develop tools to asses at adequate management scales. Rocky habitats occur in a variety of spatial configurations and pattering landscape. It is necessary to define a typology of landscape to permit a realistic comparison of similar units recognizing, for example, its favourable conservation status. The aim of this study is to identify the rocky landscape units and to propose a hierarchical classification, for identifying the units with a favourable conservation status, based on the presence of listed species. Non-parametric multivariate techniques were used to classify the 88 landscape units based on presence of different biocoenoses and environmental factors. A hierarchical typology was recognised according to the increase of complexity. The study comprises six sorts of landscape typologies included in two major groups. High correlations of selected environmental variables with biocenosis composition were obtained depending on the scale of analysis. We observed that both geomorphologic structure and depth influence presence of biocenosis. The reef landscape typology proposal can be the base for the definition of reference ecological conditions or the favourable conservation state of the habitats, it is also an interesting tool for decision-making in the marine management.
Source: F. Giménez-Casalduero, F. J. Gomaríz, J. C. Calvín (2011); “Hierarchical classification of marine rocky landscape as management tool at southeast Mediterranean coast“, Article in Press, Accepted Manuscript, to appear in: Ocean and Coastal Management; Received: 12 November 2010; Revised: 17 January 2011; Accepted: 1 March 2011, Available online: 5 April 2011, under DOI: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2011.03.001.
Artificial beach nourishment can significantly modify original beach colour, altering an important component of the coastal landscape; this can produce deleterious environmental effects and potentially induce controversies among stakeholders, leading even to litigation. This paper reviews some of these impacts, discusses chromatic compatibility of borrow sediments, and proposes techniques to assess it. Further, it evaluates the preference of beach users towards different sand colours through 320 interviews held at natural and nourished beaches in Italy using Munsell and CIE L*a*b* colour spaces. Results show that colour acceptance is significantly related to sand lightness, though in some cases different preferences were due to memories and sensations related to the colour of original or idealised beaches. The study confirmed the preference of beach users towards light-colour sand and showed that nourishments that use sediment of a new colour can influence the degree of appreciation of light and dark sands. Results from this study were further applied to the specifications of a bid for a beach fill project, setting the colorimetric coordinates in CIE L*a*b* space for sediments considered suitable for the nourishment of a particular beach in Tuscany.
Source: Enzo Pranzini, Daniela Simonetti and Giovanni Vitale (2010); “Sand Colour Rating and Chromatic Compatibility of Borrow Sediments”, Journal of Coastal Research: Volume 26, Issue 5: pp. 798 – 808. Received: 4 September 2009; Accepted: 11 February, 2010; Published online: September 2010, under DOI: 10.2112/JCOASTRES-D-09-00130.1.
In recent years, maritime spatial planning (MSP) has become an internationally emerging, promising tool for the implementation of integrated ocean management. MSP provides the appropriate framework for public authorities and stakeholders to coordinate their action across sectors and administrative boundaries, and to optimize the use of natural resources. In November 2008 the European Commission adopted the Communication “Roadmap for Maritime Spatial Planning: Achieving Common Principles in the EU” (COM(2008) 791 final) aiming to facilitate the development of MSP by Member States and to stimulate its implementation at national and EU level. Core element of this Roadmap is a set of ten key principles for MSP in Europe. Although endorsed as valid and comprehensive, further discussion and research is needed to identify challenges, measures and tools for the key principle’s practical application. This special issue of the Journal of Coastal Conservation: Planning and Management (JCCPM) seeks to contribute to this discussion. Its purpose is to shed light from different angles on the various aspects of the mentioned ten key principles and provide lessons learned from experience in different maritime areas around the world. Taking a more scientific, rather than a political point of view, the following articles will debate the different principles, their practical handling, as well as the consequences linked to their application.
Keywords: EU integrated maritime policy; Maritime spatial planning; Roadmap; Key principles for maritime spatial planning.
Source: N. Schaefer and V. Barale (2011); “Maritime spatial planning: opportunities & challenges in the framework of the EU integrated maritime policy”, Journal of Coastal Conservation, Volume 15, No. 1, March 2011; Received: 11 January 2011; Revised: 29 Marxh 201; Accepted: 30 March 2011; Published online: 3 May 2011, under DOI: 10.1007/s11852-011-0154-3O.
In this relatively short book written for a general audience, coastal scientists Orrin Pilkey and Rob Young warn that hazards associated with sea-level rise are not a remote possibility but are happening now. These rates of sea-level rise will continue to accelerate into the near future regardless of the success of climate change activism in motivating the reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions. In this time of easy access to disinformation on climate change–induced acceleration of the rate of sea-level rise, the authors provide an easy-to-understand review of scientifically accepted facts of the causes of sea-level rise. They expose the antiscientific “manufactured doubt” industry that distorts what otherwise should be unbiased explanations of why sea level is rising and the potential consequences of this rise. The primary messages of this book are that societies must prepare for a changing world, difficult decisions must be made when planning the development of future coastal infrastructure, and ultimately retreat from the shore will be necessary. The actions suggested in this book are consistent with previous work of Pilkey and Young that stresses the need for societies to learn to live with a dynamic coast rather than continuing to rely on engineering solutions to mitigate changes to coastal environments.
Keywords: Sea-level rise; Green house gas emissions; Climate change-induced acceleration; Coastal infrastructure.
Source: W. C. Schwab (2011); “The Rising Sea“, Journal of Coastal Research: Volume 27, Issue 1: pp. 202 – 203; Available online under DOI: 10.2112/10A-00002.1.