Welcome to PAP/RAC Mediterranean Coastal Alert! This newsletter is regularly updated monthly. It contains abstracts of selected current articles and archives on various environmental themes, in particular those dealing with all aspects of coastal issues. The selection is made from the articles published in the leading international scientific journals. This newsletter is an excellent way of keeping you updated with coastal studies and processes.
Low-lying coastal areas are often prone to storm surge flooding that can render severe damages to properties, destruction of habitats, threat to human safety and the environment. The impacts of coastal flooding are also expected to increase in the future as a consequence of global climate change and sea-level rise. This paper presents a comprehensive assessment of the potential risks raised by storm surge and sea-level rise on multiple coastal targets (i.e., population, buildings, infrastructures, agriculture, natural and semi-natural environments and cultural heritage) in the Northern Adriatic coast in Italy. Through the assessment of hazard, exposure, vulnerability and risk, a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology allowed identifying and prioritizing hot-spot risk areas and targets requiring particular attention for the definition of adaptation strategies. Hazard scenarios were based on the analysis of tide gauge data (elaborated with the Joint Probability Method) and of different sea-level rise projections for the year 2100. Geographical-information analysis was then used to characterize vulnerability patterns of exposed natural and human systems and to make a spatial ranking of risks. Maps produced for the worst scenario showed that beaches are the target at higher risk (with more than 90% of the surface in the higher relative risk class) due to the low elevation and high proximity to the coastline. Also cultural heritage (i.e., villas, historical buildings and roads) and wetlands are highly threatened by storm surge flooding. The relative risks will be lower (i.e., between 25% and 40% of their surface/length in the higher relative risk class) for most of the other receptors (i.e., local roads, railways, natural and semi-natural environments and agricultural areas), including population and buildings that are mostly classified in lower risk classes. The overall results of the assessment, including maps and risk metrics, can be useful to rise the attention of coastal managers about the need to adapt to climate change, developing climate-proof policies and programs for the sustainable management of coastal zones.
Source: J. Rizzi, S. Torresan, A. Zabeo, A. Critto, A. Tosoni A. Tomasin and A. Marcomini (2017); “Assessing storm surge risk under future sea-level rise scenarios: a case study in the North Adriatic coast”, Journal of Coastal Conservation, August 2017, Volume 21, Issue 4,Pages: 453 - 471; First online: 16 May 2017.
Coastal management in Europe is shifting toward soft coastal protection strategies to deal with flood risk and erosion. In the UK, a sand replenishment in North Norfolk is planned to take place in the coming years, inspired by the Dutch ‘Sand engine’: a large-scale sand replenishment executed in 2011. Besides being faced with technical challenges, the initiative requires fine-tuning to the local conditions. In this article we present a theory guided assessment of the governance context for Sandscaping in England. We focus upon North Norfolk, where Sandscaping was included as an option to protect the Bacton Gas Terminal from cliff erosion. Our aim is to contribute to further elaboration of Sandscaping potential along other locations in England. The lessons we draw about implementing Sandscaping initiatives have emerged from real project experience and could therefore be relevant in other coastal contexts.
Source: V. Vikolainen, J. Flikweert, H. Bressers and K. Lulofs (2017) ; “Governance context for coastal innovations in England: The case of Sandscaping in North Norfolk”, Ocean & Coastal Management, Volume 145, 1 August 2017, Pages: 82 - 93; Received: 10 February 2017; Received in revised form: 17 May 2017; Accepted: 27 May 2017; Available online: 1 June 2017 under: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2017.05.012
Data required from fisheries monitoring programmes substantially expand as management authorities transition to implement elements of ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM). EBFM extends conventional approaches of managing single fishery effects on individual stocks of target species by taking into account the effects, within a defined ecosystem, of local to regional fisheries on biodiversity, from genotypes to ecological communities. This includes accounting for fishery effects on evolutionary processes, associated and dependent species, habitats, trophic food web processes, and functionally linked systems. Despite seemingly insurmountable constraints, through examples, we demonstrate how data routinely collected in most observer programmes and how minor and inexpensive expansions of observer data fields and collection protocols supply ecological data underpinning EBFM. Observer data enable monitoring bycatch, including catch and mortality of endangered, threatened and protected species, and assessing the performance of bycatch management measures. They provide a subset of inputs for ecological risk assessments, including productivity–susceptibility analyses and multispecies and ecosystem models. Observer data are used to monitor fishery effects on habitat and to identify and protect benthic vulnerable marine ecosystems. They enable estimating collateral sources of fishing mortality. Data from observer programmes facilitate monitoring ecosystem pressure and state indicators. The examples demonstrate how even rudimentary fisheries management systems can meet the ecological data requirements of elements of EBFM.
Source: E. Gilman; M. Weijerman and P. Suuronen (2017); “Ecological data from observer programmes underpin ecosystem-based fisheries management”, ICES Journal of Marine Science, Volume 74, Issue 6, 1 July 2017, Pages: 1481 - 1495; Received: 17 October 2016; Revision Received: 12 January 2017; Accepted: 22 February 2017; Available under: https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsx032
Despite increasing focus on sustainable aquaculture investment in the U.S. coastal zones, the aquaculture industry continues to face skepticism among consumers due to perceived negative environmental impacts, and health and food safety concerns. Partnering with culinary tourism and local food promotion efforts has potential for improving public outreach about the benefits of aquaculture, especially in coastal destinations where sustainable marine aquaculture and tourism are both occurring. Culinary tourism implies that local foods reflect the local livelihood and culture, and may be important to the tourist's experience. Aquaculture is becoming increasingly valuable to coastal destinations for assuring the steady availability of local seafood to meet demand and retaining commercial fisheries as a means to differentiate themselves to tourists. This study examined the role of subjective knowledge and attitude about aquaculture, and their effect on intention to participate in value-added culinary aquaculture tourism experiences. The study found that tourists' subjective knowledge and attitude about aquaculture influenced intentions to participate in culinary aquaculture tourism. In order for farmers or tour operators to be successful in diversifying with value-added culinary aquaculture, attention needs to be paid to educating consumers, which may be possible through strategic partnerships with tourism organizations, chefs, and restaurants.
Source: G. Kim, L. N. Duffy, L. W. Jodice and W. C. Norman (2017); “Coastal Tourist Interest in Value-Added, Aquaculture-Based, Culinary Tourism Opportunities”, Coastal Management Journal, Volume 45, 2017, Issue 4, Pages: 310 - 329; Published online: 16 June 2017 under http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08920753.2017.1327345