The project area
Albania, which lies on the west side of the Balkan peninsula, is mainly a mountainous country. The estimates indicate that in 1992 population was 3.41 million. The Albanian coastline is 470 km long, with many lagoons, sand belts and sand dunes. The Adriatic section of the coastline is under constant dynamic change due to river inputs and the seismic profile of the area, while the Ionian coast is rocky with small beaches and limited sandy areas. Due to the rugged relief of the land, rivers are torrential with a high erosive power. Albania is situated in the Mediterranean climatic belt, with a hot dry summer and a generally mild winter with abundant rainfall. The country has a rich cultural heritage and diversified archaeological sites which include prehistoric settlements, monuments and necropoles of Illyrian towns, and ruins of castels of the early Albanian Middle Ages.
Major problems and issues
- Albania ranks as one of the poorest countries in Europe. Low levels of productivity and capital investments combined with shortages of skilled labour are major constraints of the growth.
- There are no restrictions on the use of chemical herbicides, pesticides and fertilisers in agriculture resulting in contamination of rivers, canals and groundwater. Damages to aquatic life and incidents of eutrophication have been reported due to the improper disposal of industrial waste into the aquatic environment and unsustainable agricultural practices.
The CAMP dedicated to the Albanian coastal region, implemented during the period 1993-1995, was oriented towards the creation and promotion of the process of sustainable development through integrated planning and management of coastal resources. Four components, with 15 activities were implemented, namely:
- Prospective analysis (systemic and prospective analysis, development/environment scenarios);
- Development and implementation of legal instruments (development of environmental legislation, inventory of land-based sources of pollution, implementation of LBS, dumping and SPA protocols, and monitoring of marine pollution);
The objectives of the programme were the following:
- overall, to protect and rationally utilise the coastal resources over a relatively long period of time. The task of such a programme is to determine and recommend appropriate management measures with a view to resolving the existing environmental conflicts and establishing the optimum paths for dynamic development;
- in the long term, to develop the coastal area of Albania in harmony with the receptive capacity of the environment and to create conditions for the establishment of a system of integrated planning and management of resources in the region; and
- immediately, to offer, within the individual activities, solutions to urgent environmental problems. In the elaboration of those solutions, particular attention was paid to the strategic objectives of the programme.
Major project results
The work on the development and implementation of the CAMP for Albania has been an extremely useful exercise because it improved considerably the capabilities of Albanian institutions responsible for various aspects of coastal areas management. Institutions which were involved are now largely capable of continuing the work on their own and to apply their know-how in other regions of Albania.
The capacity building component of the CAMP for Albania constituted an important and extremely useful part of the programme. In addition to the training courses, much attention was accorded to individual on-the-job training.
Within the framework of each individual activity, a number of recommendations were made. Whenever possible, these recommendations should be implemented through the follow-up activities.
Partially owing to the very good CAMP results, PAP and its associates Dobin Milus International (DMI) were entrusted by the World Bank to prepare an overall Coastal Zone Management Plan for the remaining two Albania's coastal regions - the North and the South Regions. The major goals of this Plan were to contribute to the biodiversity protection, tourism development and institutional capacity building.
PAP/RAC 1999. Water Resources Management Study for the Erzeni and Ishmi Rivers: Water Resources Assessment. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. vi + 142. ENG
This document presents the second part of the Water Resources Management Study, containing a description and analysis of water resources of Erzeni and Ishmi rivers.
MARGETA, J., and PAVASOVIC, S. (preparation of GIS data base). 1996. Water Resources Management Study for the Erzeni and Ishmi Rivers: Water Resources Assessment. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. iv + 61. ENG
One of the activities carried out by the Priority Actions Programme Regional Activity Centre (PAP/RAC) within the framework of MAP Coastal Area Management Programme (CAMP) "Albanian Coastal Region" is the Water Resources Management. The long-term objectives of the activity are to contribute to the protection and rational use of water resources in Albania as a whole and, particularly in its coastal area, and thereby to create necessary conditions for development of tourism and other activities. The immediate objectives are to assess the availability of water resources and their quality, to propose measures for pollution prevention, to analyse the existing water resources management system, and to recommend a system of monitoring and sanitary control. Furthermore, the objective of this activity is also to present the water balance of the existing and future needs for water, and to recommend a feasible approach to the planning and implementation of development projects. The main output of this activity, as decided, is Water Resources Management Study for the Erzeni and Ishmi Rivers. The Study presents , in an integrated manner, all the characteristics of water resources of these two watersheds in order to enable proposing the optimal system of their exploitation and protection in accordance with present and future demands of the region. Also, this Study sets priorities with regard to the relevant inventions in this area. The result of the Study is to enable future activities to be precisely defined and rational solutions to be sought out for sustainable management of water resources of the Erzeni and Ishmi rivers. This document presents the first part of the Water Resources Management Study, containing a description and analysis of water resources of Erzeni and Ishmi rivers.
|PAP/RAC. 1996. The Region of Durresi-Vlora: Coastal Zone Management Plan. CAMP/1993/AL/CZMP. Split: PAP/RAC. pp xvii + 87. ENG|
This report is one of the outputs of Integrated Management of Coastal and Marine Areas of the Durrësi-Vlora Region initiated through "Coastal Areas Management Programme" (CAMP) for Albania. A certain number of issues actually triggered the launching of the process of coastal zone management in Albania. The most important overall goals of the CZM Plan are the following: to preserve ecological integrity; to renew or rehabilitate damaged resources; to ensure that natural resources are equitable between generations; to encourage complementarity rather than competitive activities; to preserve and promote social equity and introduce the participatory approach; and to provide a mechanism for capacity building and planning. This programme is expected to provide the following benefits: improvement of the state of the environment; incorporation of environmental considerations into planning activities and the decision-making process; enhancement of the local capacities in resolving various development and environmental problems; transfer of knowledge from relevant international organisations to national and local institutions; and creating conditions for responding to some accidental situations.
|PAP/RAC. 1995. Albania Coastal Zone Management Plan: Final Report - Phase One. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. xix + 118. ENG |
This report is part of an overall Coastal Zone Management Action Plan for the northern and southern parts of Albania's coastal zone. This project and this report focus only on the coastal area, which without doubt represents one of the most valuable assets of Albania from the points of view of development and environment. The most important overall goal of the CZM Plan is to preserve ecological integrity through establishing ecologically sustainable limits for resource use. The strategic objectives of the Plan are: to promote conservation of Albania’s biodiversity, cultural heritage and coastal and marine-related tourism and ecotourism industry; to enhance employment creation opportunities and institutional capacity; and to recommend a series of investment projects that will help “kick-start” the coastal economy in an incremental way.
PAP/RAC. 1995. Albania Coastal Zone Management Plan: Final Report - Phase Two. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. xiv + 80. ENG
This report covers the results of PAP/DMI studies in Phase Two of the Coastal Zone Management Plan (CZMP). The main objective of Phase Two of the CZM plan is to elaborate the Coastal Investment Projects which were identified as priority in the Phase One. The Regional Concept Plan Management Areas establishes a context for preparing a conceptual management plan for the three coastal investment projects (and 12 sub-projects): Velipoja, Karaburuni and Saranda-Butrinti. Based on the management plans for Velipoja, Karaburuni and Saranda-Butrinti, a preliminary master plan for each project was prepared to further detail project components and establish an organisation and framework of land use, transportation, and services infrastructure. The potential investment options and an assessment of coastal investment project costs and probable benefits are based on an analysis of the detailed project components identified by the preliminary master plans.
GNILSEN, R. 1994. Albania Coastal Zone Management Phase I - Sections on Environmental and Infrastructure Aspects. Split: PAP-RAC/DMI. pp. 39.
This sectorial study presents the location and quantity of water resources in the Adriatic and Ionian Coasts, the existing state of coastal and marine uses and environmental effects, the use of coastal land for agriculture and industry (problems and potential); for infrastructure and energy; and for urban and rural development. Departing from the analysis of the existing situation, the study gives a proposal of those components of the infrastructure systems which need to be improved as a matter of priority. These components are water supply, liquid and solid waste management, energy, transportation and telecommunications.
SALATHE, T. 1994. Conservation and Wise Use of Lagoons and Coastal Wetlands - Northern and southern coast, excluding the Durrës-Vlora region. Split: PAP-RAC/DMI. pp. 30.
This study is based on the results of a fact-finding mission. In addition to discussing major problems and basic principles for the conservation and use of lagoons and wetlands in the northern and southern part of the Albanian coast, it assesses the state of the Albanian legislation in that particular field, provides an analysis of conflicts and constraints for wetland conservation (human uses, development plans, environmentally sensitive areas), determines priority areas for wetland conservation and use, and offers management proposals for each of these areas (Viluni Lagoon, the coastal wetland belt of Drini, Mati and Ishmi rivers, and the Butrinti wetland complex).
TILOT, V.; and JEUDY DE GRISSAC, A. 1994. Diagnostic of the Marine and Coastal Environment of Northern and Southern Albania. Split: PAP-RAC/DMI. pp. 64.
The document contains an excellent description of marine and coastal ecosystems in the study area (location, physical characteristics, geology, land and sea habitats, wetlands, major problems, etc.); identification of environmentally sensitive areas in both coastal regions; and classification of priority conservation areas. In conclusion, the document contains a proposal of strategy of sustainable development with the accent on tourism, preservation of biodiversity, and strengthening of the institutional capacity.
CONSTANTINIDES, G. 1994. Socio-Economic Aspects: Population and Economic Activities - Existing Situation, Conflicts, Objectives and Opportunities. Split: PAP-RAC/DMI. pp. 28.
In introduction, the documents speaks of the socio-economic changes following the collapse of communism in Albania in 1990-1992 and of the uncertain future development directions. Separately for the South and the North Coastal Region, it discusses extensively (a) the population dynamics and structure; (b) the economic structure by sectors (industry, agriculture, services); (c) short-term opportunities of economy; (c) location of opportunities and priority areas; and (d) institutional requirements needed to be met in order to achieve the goals of the expected economic growth.
CONSTANTINIDES, G. 1994. The Economic Structure and Growth of the Northern and Southern Parts of the CZM Plan. Split: PAP-RAC/DMI. pp. 28.
The document gives an overview of the Albanian economy, and a survey by sectors and future trends for the North and the South Region separately. It specifically discusses the development policy and goals, and recommends the institutional framework needed to enable the desired development. In conclusion, the document recommends the development scenarios for the two regions of the Albanian coast.
|EFTIMI, R. 1994. Water Resources Master Plan for the Rivers Erzeni and Ishmi. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. 96. ENG (unedited)|
One of the outputs of the Coastal Area Management Programme (CAMP), implemented by MAP, PAP/RAC and the Albanian authorities for the central Albanian coastal region (the area of Durrës-Vlora), is the Water Resources Master Plan for the Rivers Erzeni and Ishmi. This study (Plan) was aimed to provide an assessment of available water resources for the needs of residents and the future tourism development, to analyse the existing water management systems, and to recommend measures to prevent the pollution of water resources as well as setting up the relevant monitoring system and sanitary control. Although the text of the study has not been edited, it is included in the reference list because it contains ample data on (a) hydrological and climatic factors; (b) regime and quality of the surface water; and (c) hydrogeology, regime and quality of ground water.
|PAP/RAC. 1994. The Region of Durrës-Vlora: Coastal Profile (Draft). CAMP/1993/AL/ICAM-CP. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. iv + 60. ENG|
This document is the result of the first (data collection and processing) and second (collection of the missing data) phases of work on the Integrated Coastal Area Management Programme (ICAM) for the central part of the Albanian coastal area - the Region of Durrës-Vlora. The document illustrates the profile of that part of the coast and offers details on the components of the environment and resources, socio-economic context and the existing physical systems, institutional aspects, main ecological problems, and development potentials and constraints. The specific value of this document is the identification and description of environmentally sensitive areas and specially protected areas. The Coastal Profile is based on a number of sectorial reports which were prepared by PAP consultants within CAMP "Albania", and it is brought in line with the simultaneously carried out project covering the North and South Coastal Region which is entrusted by the World Bank to PAP/RAC and Dobbin Millus International.
|INSTITUTE OF SOIL STUDY, TIRANA. 1994. Evaluation of the Soil Resources. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. 27. ENG (unedited)|
In addition to data on climate, vegetation and forests, this sectorial report contains exhaustive information on the types and agrochemical contents of soils, and an evaluation of the agricultural land. It also discusses the existing agricultural practices and methods, reclaimed and irrigated areas, impacts of inappropriate agricultural practices, deforestation, forest fires and, particularly, soils with environmental problems which are exposed to pollution and erosion.
|DEMI, D. 1994. Sectorial Report (Phase I of ICAM): Inventory of the Natural Resource Base. Split: PAP/RAC. pp 44. + maps, figures, diagrams. ENG|
This sectorial report is one of the thematic papers prepared following a fact-finding mission which together provide the basis for the Region of Durrës-Vlora Coastal Profile. It contains exhaustive information and data on all types of marine and coastal resources which are of importance for this part of the Albanian coast (mineral resources, renewable energy resources, flora, fauna, specific ecosystems, landscape, and places of cultural and historic interest).
|TRUTA, S., BAKO, A., SHEHU, A., BERXOLI, A., COCOLI, S., and RRELI, F. 1993. Sectorial Report: Analysis of the Existing Physical Systems. CAMP(1993)/AL/ICAM-SR.4. Split: PAP/RAC. pp 26. ENG (unedited)|
This sectorial report fills in the information gaps specifically on the topics of land and sea use, solid waste disposal and energy supply. It focuses on the existing state of land and sea uses, distribution and hierarchy of settlements, transportation and irrigation networks, water supply, liquid and solid waste disposal, and the level of energy supply in this coastal region.
|BERLENGI, G., MECAJ, N., RULI, E., SHEHU, R., and KOCIAJ, S. 1993. Sectorial Report: Survey of the Physical Environment. CAMP(1993)/AL/ICAM-SR.3. Split: PAP/RAC. pp 14. ENG (unedited)|
This sectorial report is yet another thematic document which provides the basis of the Coastal Profile of the coastal area between the towns of Durrës and Vlora. The report presents the basic geographic features of the area; its geomorphology, geology and seismology; and its climatic characteristics and oceanographic data. In conclusion, the report focuses on the coastal morphodynamics as the key element of the physical components of this part of the Albanian coast.
|ZANETTO, G. 1993. Socio-Economic Context of the Region. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. 9. ENG (unedited)|
This sectorial paper contains basic information and data on the Durrës-Vlora Region, specifically concerning (a) population and human resources; (b) size and distribution of population by districts and settlements; (c) demographic structure; (d) employment; (e) level of education; (f) migrations; and (g) economic problems and capabilities.
|EFTIMI, R. 1993. Groundwater of Durrës-Vlora Area. Split: PAP/RAC. pp 10. ENG (unedited)|
This is one of the thematic papers that made possible the preparation of the Coastal Profile of the Durrës-Vlora area. It offers data on the area's groundwater potential, illustrates the main characteristics of major aquifers, determines the well capacity and groundwater extraction, assesses the groundwater quality and potential water supply sources).