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PAC "Fuka-Matrouh" Egypte

Zone du projet

La zone du projet s'étend sur quelques 100 kilomètres de la côte entre Marsa Matrouh à l'est et Fuka, avec une bande côtière intérieure de 10 à 20 kilomètres caractérisée par des plages de sable blanc et une mer bleue et claire comme le jour. La densité de la population est très faible (une personne par km2). Le climat est du type méditerranéen semi-aride, caractérisé par des hivers brefs, doux et pluvieux, et des étés longs et chauds (de mai à septembre). La productivité du sol est très basse dans cette zone et l'eau d'irrigation est insuffisante. La culture dense et les pâturages ne concernent qu'une étroite bande littorale. Quatre-vingt pour cents des bédouins s'occupent de l'élevage de chevres et moutons et de la culture de légumes et d'arbres. Quelques 15 % des bédouins dépendent du commerce de l'orge et le reste (5%) travaille pour le gouvernement ou pour des patrons privés.

Principaux problèmes et questions

Les principaux problèmes identifiés dans cette zone sont:

  • le développement incontrôlé du tourisme, qui exclut la population locale comme bénéficiaire;

  • l'exploitation non durable des ressources côtières;

  • des conditions naturelles complexes qui exigent des principes souples en ce qui concerne l'agriculture dont les bénéficiaires doivent être les bédouins qui sont la population autochtone;

  • le besoin de protéger les régions écologiquement vulnérables et le patrimoine culturel;

  • la planification insuffisante de l'utilisation de la terre et l'inexistence d'un système de contrôle du développement et d'une approche participative de la planification du développement.

 

Activités du projet

Le projet à démarré en 1992 après la signature d'un accord entre le PAM et le gouvernement d'Egypte. Il comprenait deux groupes d'activités:

  • activités sectorielles: études de l'impact des changement climatiques, SIG, cadre légal, zones protégées et patrimoine culturel, évaluation des ressources naturelles, préservation du sol appuyée par la télédétection environnementale;

  • activités intégrées: évaluation de la capacité d'accueil pour le tourisme (ECA), étude de planification, évaluation stratégique de l'environnement (ESE), analyses prospectives.

 

 

 

Résultats du projet

Le résultat principal du projet est l'étude de planification intégrée de la zone du projet. Cette étude envisage la création d'un pôle de développement dans la zone ouest de la côte et propose des solutions dont le but est un développement intégré de la zone plus vaste du projet, qui introduit des mesures pour:

  • la protection des terres à vocation agricole et la restructuration des prairies,
  • la revitalisation des collectivités rurales, pour la plupart des bédouins,
  • la diversification des activités touristiques, pour augmenter les possibilités d'emploi,
  • la protection du patrimoine naturel et culturel.


Pour assurer une plus vaste utilisation des résultats du projet et des méthodologies appliquées, ainsi qu'une meilleure coordination et intégration du processus de prise de décisions, le projet à recommandé aux autorités nationales:

  • d'intégrer ses résultats dans le processus national de gestion côtière,
  • de créer un Comité national pour la GIZC,
  • de mettre en ouvre une série de propositions et de mesures concernant la poursuite du projet.

 

Publications/Documents

 

PAP/RAC. 1999. Coastal Area Management Programme (CAMP) Fuka-Matrouh-Egypt. Final Integrated Report. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. iv + 22. ENG

(Download Final Integarted Report.pdf / 254 KB)

The long-term objective of the Project was setting up of the system of integrated planning and management of resources in the area, as well as support efforts towards the development of a national coastal management programme. The immediate objective of the MAP CAMP "Fuka-Matrouh, Egypt" was to provide solutions to development and environmental problems of the most urgent nature which could be implemented in a short run. The project was composed of two groups of activities: those primarily sectoral, focused on individual topics or issues which mostly make the analytical part of the planning process, and the activities which mostly make the analytical phase in outputs, such as CCA, ICAM Planning Study and SEA. Integrated Coastal Area Management (ICAM) Planning Study is the main output that synthesised all the knowledge and recommendations gained by individual activities and sectoral studies. The development concept proposed in this Study and shown only within the study area boundaries is the result of the considerations of the wider regional and national context. This concept envisages the creation of an important development role in the western coastal region. The Fuka-Matrouh area is a good example of the area where an integrated coastal management plan is needed because of negative development trends, conflicting issues and complex management problems.

 
EL-RAEY, M., and FAWZI, M. A. 1999. Strategic Environmental Assessment of the Integrated Coastal Area Management Plan of the Fuka-Matrouh Area, Egypt. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. 66. ENG

The document presents Strategic Environmental Assessment of the Integrated Coastal Area Management Plan of the Fuka-Matrouh Area. Under the conditions of the study area, nature, and the limiting factors (water, energy, rare and endangered species), an integrated coastal area management plan was designed. One of the most important plans, which should be implemented immediately, is the socio-economic awareness programme. Programmes of water supply, institutional capacity building, and land use planning, together with preservation of cultural and ecological sites, must be developed concurrently in an integrated fashion. Strategic environmental assessment study was implemented by using the matrix method for identifying environmental effects and impacts. Results indicate that the most significant positive impacts are due to the development of transportation systems upgrading of awareness, and better employment of local people. The most important negative impacts may be attributed to pollution due to tourism and associated waste. The alternatives for actions in the study area are very limited. There are no alternatives of significant importance of traffic infrastructure (airport, road network) development. Suitability analysis based on GIS, associated with integrated coastal area management, can enhance a comprehensive vision of development in the study area. The study proposes following measures to mitigate the most prominent problems: (1) three plantation to protect against wind storms and air pollution from traffic; (2) wastewater recycling units for each resort; (3) cultivation of the hinterland to reduce transportation of goods in the summer and reduce pollution, and (4) minimising quarrying to reduce pollution and protect hinterland from wind action.

 
CARNEMOLLA, S., CARNICELLI, S., and DELLI, G. 1999. Coastal Area Management Programme (CAMP) Fuka-Matrouh-Egypt. Assessment of Natural Resources and Soil Conservation Issues in the Coastal Area of Fuka – Matrouh. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. iv + 81. ENG

In the framework of the MAP's activities concerning the Fuka-Matrouh CAMP, the CTM-RAC/ERS oriented its intervention towards the provision of basic information on geomorphology, pedology and vegetation, and presented it in cartographic format - in order to allow the assessment of land resources in the area. The CTM-RAC/ERS application, it has been demonstrated the time and cost effectiveness of the methodology of integrated survey which relies on the most suitable combination of different observation tools and thus strongly supported by a multidisciplinary approach. The general objective of the proposed activity was the implementation of a multidisciplinary application through which information on land resources could be obtained, in particular, taking into account several parameters concerning land forms, natural vegetation distribution, and soil characteristics. Such a multidisciplinary approach is based on the application of advanced techniques - like space remote-sensing - and on their most suitable combination with direct in situ measurement. The results of the CTM-RAC/ERS intervention allowed to obtain useful information on the Fuka-Matrouh region, necessary to planners and decision-makers for the evaluation of land suitability to different potential uses.

 
KLARIC, Z., KOMILIS, P., DRAGICEVIC, M., BERLENGI, G., and SURUCU, F. 1999. Carrying Capacity Assessment for Tourism Development of the CAMP Fuka-Matrouh, Egypt. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. vi + 74. ENG
(Download CCA for Tourism Development.pdf / 730kb)

The "Tourism Carrying Capacity Assessment for Fuka-Matrouh Coastal Zone" is one of the activities initiated through the "Coastal Area Management Programme" (CAMP) for the state of Egypt as an input to the "Coastal Zone Management Plan of the Fuka-Matrouh Area". The Tourism CCA for the Fuka-Matrouh is at the same time a part of the PAP/RAC's priority action "Development of Mediterranean Tourism Harmonised with the Environment" and represents a practical application of the "Guidelines for Carrying Capacity Assessment for Tourism in Mediterranean Coastal Areas" prepared by the PAP/RAC. The tourism CCA study for Fuka-Matrouh coastal zone had four basic objectives: (1) to offer a concept of a well balanced tourism development by identifying environmental and socio-economic issues and problems, and by assessing the resources and their interactions in the study area so that, at the same time, the needs of the population in the area are fulfilled; (2) to present and promote this concept to local and regional authorities, entrepreneurs, planners and local population; (3) To prove the applicability of the PAP methodology for carrying capacity assessment for this area, as a representative for less developed Mediterranean countries facing challenges of fast and sometimes uncontrolled development; and (4) to serve as a model to other areas in Egypt, as well as in some other Mediterranean countries, or even countries outside the Mediterranean, as a pilot document for carrying capacity assessment. The optimum carrying capacity assessment for tourism for the study area had to be used also as an input for the coastal area management plan to control and guide future potential tourism development in the study area.

 

PARPAIRIS, A., and PARPAIRI, K. 1999. Integrated Coastal Area Management Planning Study – CAMP Fuka-Matrouh, Egypt. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. vi + 66. ENG

(Download ICAM Planning Study Fuka.pdf / 320 KB)

As a result of the uncontrolled human presence and extensive exploration in the Mediterranean basin, where the harmful impacts of these actions are visible all over the region - a world-wide concern has developed regarding how to deal with conflicts over land use policies, how to apply the principles of sustainable development, and how to introduce an integrated coastal and marine areas planning and management. The area covered by the ICAM Planning Study is the section between the village of Fuka and the town of Marsa-Matrouh, approximately 70 km wide. The final product of the activity is the ICAM Planning Study providing strategies and management guidelines as a framework for à more detailed coastal management and land use planning to be undertaken in the second phase. This document is the result of the first phase, based on a participatory process as well as on sectoral reports and research findings. This study process has been based on the MAP/PAP guidelines. The principal goal of this document is to provide a safe ground for the whole process of cutting across sectoral boundaries, and incorporating the interactions between the coastal natural resources, and those of socio-economic influences affecting the coastal environment. The structure of the report is moving through the following steps: context, goals and objectives; methodology; the area profile, constraints and opportunities; proposed alternative scenarios; and certain conclusions addressing strategic EIA, Carrying Capacity Assessment proposals for a structure plan, as well as planning and management tools and guidelines.

 

EL-RAEY, M., and FAWZI, M. A. 1999. Strategic Environmental Assessment of the Integrated Coastal Area Management Plan of the Fuka-Matrouh Area, Egypt. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. 66. ENG

The document presents Strategic Environmental Assessment of the Integrated Coastal Area Management Plan of the Fuka-Matrouh Area. Under the conditions of the study area, nature, and the limiting factors (water, energy, rare and endangered species), an integrated coastal area management plan was designed. One of the most important plans, which should be implemented immediately, is the socio-economic awareness programme. Programmes of water supply, institutional capacity building, and land use planning, together with preservation of cultural and ecological sites, must be developed concurrently in an integrated fashion. Strategic environmental assessment study was implemented by using the matrix method for identifying environmental effects and impacts. Results indicate that the most significant positive impacts are due to the development of transportation systèms upgrading of awareness, and better employment of local people. The most important negative impacts may be attributed to pollution due to tourism and associated waste. The alternatives for actions in the study area are very limited. There are no alternatives of significant importance of traffic infrastructure (airport, road network) development. Suitability analysis based on GIS, associated with integrated coastal area management, can enhance à comprehensive vision of development in the study area. The study proposes following measures to mitigate the most prominent problems: (1) three plantation to protect against wind storms and air pollution from traffic; (2) wastewater recycling units for each resort; (3) cultivation of the hinterland to reduce transportation of goods in the summer and reduce pollution, and (4) minimising quarrying to reduce pollution and protect hinterland from wind action.

 

CARNEMOLLA, S., CARNICELLI, S., and DELLI, G. 1999. Coastal Area Management Programme (CAMP) Fuka-Matrouh-Egypt. Assessment of Natural Resources and Soil Conservation Issues in the Coastal Area of Fuka – Matrouh. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. iv + 81. ENG

In the framework of the MAP's activities concerning the Fuka-Matrouh CAMP, the CTM-RAC/ERS oriented its intervention towards the provision of basic information on geomorphology, pedology and vegetation, and presented it in cartographic format - in order to allow the assessment of land resources in the area. The CTM-RAC/ERS application, it has been demonstrated the time and cost effectiveness of the methodology of integrated survey which relies on the most suitable combination of different observation tools and thus strongly supported by à multidisciplinary approach. The general objective of the proposed activity was the implementation of à multidisciplinary application through which information on land resources could be obtained, in particular, taking into account several parameters concerning land forms, natural vegetation distribution, and soil characteristics. Such à multidisciplinary approach is based on the application of advanced techniques - like space remote-sensing - and on their most suitable combination with direct in situ measurement. The results of the CTM-RAC/ERS intervention allowed to obtain useful information on the Fuka-Matrouh region, necessary to planners and decision-makers for the evaluation of land suitability to different potential uses.

 

MAP Technical Reports 131: MAP CAMP Project "Fuka-Matrouh", Egypt: Final integrated report and selected documents: Volume I

MAP Technical Reports 131: MAP CAMP Project "Fuka-Matrouh", Egypt: Final integrated report and selected documents: Volume II

 

PAVASOVIC, S. 1993. Land Suitability Models. PAP-4/GIS/W.1/2. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. 9. ENG

The following computer models for assessing land suitability for various uses are presented: 0-1 model; linear weighted model; penalty points model; and PROMETHEE, method of multicriterional analysis.
 

PAP/RAC, 1993. Updated On-Site Report for the Fuka-Matrouh Area (Egypt). Split: PAP/RAC. pp. 46. ENG

This paper was prepared for the needs of the MAP-PAP project of integrated planning and management of the Fuka-Matrouh coastal area, and provides up-dated knowledge and data on all aspects relevant for the project, i.e.: a brief description of the area, activities of international organisations, statistical data on the area, description of the state of the environment, review of coastal area protection measures at the national level, review of national institutions dealing with the protection of marine environment against pollution and erosion, review of the draft Low on Environmental Protection, review of water resources, state of soil erosion, and a note on GIS.

 

RADELJA, T. 1993. Performing Spatial Queries and Applications Development Using ArcView. PAP-4/GIS/W.1/1. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. 6. ENG

The paper describes an exercise in using the ArcView computer application and its most important features.

 
VELDIC, V. 1993. GIS-based Information System for Evaluation of Compatibility Between Settlement Activities and their Environmental Settings. PAP-4/GIS/W.1/3. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. 11. ENG

This documents represents the practical example of the use of the pcARC/INFO software within the integrated management of coastal areas. It describes an information system for assessing compatibility between urban activities and the natural environment. It is intended for GIS experts and presumes a certain knowledge on GIS and the pcARC/INFO software.

 

PAVASOVIC, S. 1993. Development of User Interface for Suitability Models. PAP/GIS/W.1/4. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. 3. ENG

The need for user interface and its basic properties are briefly described.

PARPAIRIS, A., and PARPAIRI, K. 1999. Integrated Coastal Area Management Planning Study – CAMP Fuka-Matrouh, Egypt. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. vi + 66. ENG

As a result of the uncontrolled human presence and extensive exploration in the Mediterranean basin, where the harmful impacts of these actions are visible all over the region - a world-wide concern has developed regarding how to deal with conflicts over land use policies, how to apply the principles of sustainable development, and how to introduce an integrated coastal and marine areas planning and management. The area covered by the ICAM Planning Study is the section between the village of Fuka and the town of Marsa-Matrouh, approximately 70 km wide. The final product of the activity is the ICAM Planning Study providing strategies and management guidelines as a framework for a more detailed coastal management and land use planning to be undertaken in the second phase. This document is the result of the first phase, based on a participatory process as well as on sectoral reports and research findings. This study process has been based on the MAP/PAP guidelines. The principal goal of this document is to provide a safe ground for the whole process of cutting across sectoral boundaries, and incorporating the interactions between the coastal natural resources, and those of socio-economic influences affecting the coastal environment. The structure of the report is moving through the following steps: context, goals and objectives; methodology; the area profile, constraints and opportunities; proposed alternative scenarios; and certain conclusions addressing strategic EIA, Carrying Capacity Assessment proposals for a structure plan, as well as planning and management tools and guidelines.

 

EID, E., Integrated Planning and Management of Fuka Area – Egypt. Split: PAP/RAC. pp 32. ENG

Prepared for the needs of the project of integrated planning and management of the Fuka area, this paper presents the profile of the area and all its important characteristics.

 
 
 
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