CAMP "The Island of Rhodes" (Greece)
The island of Rhodes is situated in the eastern Mediterranean, in the south-eastern corner of the Aegean Archipelago near Asia Minor. The island covers an area of 1,498 km², and its coastline has a total length of 220 km. According to the 1981 census, its population was 88,000 people, while it is estimated that by 1991 it grew to 117,000. This illustrates the major characteristic of the demographic evolution, a rather high population growth. Population migrations within the island are also pronounced, especially towards the northern part. Approximately half of the island population is concentrated in the area of the town of Rhodes. The project area covers 1% of the national territory, with 1.5% of the national population and 15% of national tourism activities. Tourism is the main development factor of the island. It implies the growth of complementary activities (catering, other services, handicrafts), but often to the detriment of other sectors of economy, primarily agriculture.
Major problems and issues
The following major problems and issues were identified during the preparatory stage of PAP activities in the island of Rhodes:
- over-expansion of tourism activities resulting in overbuilding along the coastline and endangered natural environment and cultural heritage;
- economic structure: monoculture of tourism, initial signs of decline of the present tourism project, new plans for further intensive tourism expansion in relatively virgin areas;
- infrastructure problems: waste management, water resource management and supply, dependence on external sources of energy; and
- needs for capacity building at local and prefecture levels.
The project was implemented in three phases, as PAP pilot project, as CAMP project and as METAP-EIB/MAP project funded by the EIB. Owing to the funds secured by EIB, the last phase dealt with in-depth planning, including preparation of feasibility studies, master plans and detailed integrated plans. The following activities were implemented during these three phases:
- implementation of the LBSP and dumping protocols;
- pollution monitoring and control;
- liquid waste management and DSS;
- renewable energies;
- GIS, EIA, carrying capacity for tourism;
- integrated planning;
- protection of natural resources; and
- protection of cultural heritage.
- Basic policy recommendations:
- to reduce the planned expansion of tourism facilities;
- to implement measures recommended for a gradual establishment of a diversified economy; and
- to implement the major detailed plans: the Water Resource Master Plan, envisaging the construction of the water supply system, including the construction of a large dam/water reservoir, the detailed Planning Study prepared, programmes for the protection of natural and cultural sites, and of use of renewable energies;
- Training on: water resource management master plan, GIS, CCA for tourism activities, EIA; and
- Supply of equipment and software (to local authorities and to IGME, the institution preparing the water resource master plan).
The major follow-up activity is related to the implementation of the Water Resources Master Plan, in particular to the construction of the Gadoura dam, the funds for it being approved.
TSOTSOS, D., KATSAOUNIS, A., and ANGELIDIS, M. 1994. General Plan for Management of Waste Waters - Part II. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. 154. ENG
The second part of the General Plan for Management of Waste Waters deals with planning of systems. Numerous data were studies and a number of solutions prepared that could be applied both in Rhodes and in other Mediterranean areas. First, from the generally accepted criteria and standards, those elements were singled out to which the decision makers have to pay particular attention when formulating possible wastewater management systems, in order to produce minimum negative environmental effects. The study also lists and analyses the socio-economic factors that could significantly influence the formulation and adoption of the optimum solution.
MARGETA, J. 1993. Technical Specification of the Project "Water Resources Master Plan of the Island of Rhodes. CAMP 1993/GR/WRMP/TP.1. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. 44. ENG
The detailed specification of the project was divided into the following parts: 1. Hydroclimatological Factors; 2. Regime and Quality of the Surface Water; 3. Hydrogeology, Regime and Quality of Ground Water; 4. Development of the Island Water Resources Data Base; 5. Natural Water Balance; 6. Natural Factors Related to Water Resources Master Plan; 7. Socio-Economic Factors and Development of Water Demand; 8. Water Storage; 9. Protection from Water; 10. Sewerage Systems in Settlements and Industry; 11. Protection of Water Resources; 12. Water Exploitation; 13. Analysis and Selection of Water Supply Solutions; 14. Synthesis Report on Measures and Activities for Using the Island Water Resources. For each of the above chapters, a brief introduction, objectives and prerequisites are given, and expected results and tasks defined.
TRUMBIC, I. 1993. The Integrated Planning Study for the Island of Rhodes, Greece - Case Study. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. 33. ENG
This study represents the first major step towards launching the process of integrated planning of coastal areas of the island of Rhodes. Its intention was to offer a practical planning and management instrument for: quick identification of development and ecological problems; securing a quick overview of the most favourable future development of the island possible, based on the assessment of natural resources capacity to sustain the human interventions; proposing spatial development strategies and appropriate management actions; and proposing urgent measures. Example is given of an area in which ecological problems have not yet fully developed, but there are indications that in some of its parts the primary natural resources, on which the development of the island is based, have been used above the sustainable limits, which threatens future development projects. Upon an analysis of the situation, certain development projects are proposed and their environmental effects describe. Finally, experience gained during the preparation of the study is presented.
TSOTSOS, D., and KATSAOUNIS, A. 1993. General Plan for Management of Waste Waters - Part I. CAMP/1993/GR/LWM/GP.1/1. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. 213. ENG
For an island with highly developed tourism and considerable industrial capacities, efficient management of wastewaters is of utmost importance. Since a General Wastewater Management Plan of the island, which is the essential element of a successful control of effluent discharges, still doesn't exist, it was decided to make one, following the Code of Practice for Environmentally Sound Management of Liquid Waste Discharge in the Mediterranean Sea prepared by PAP/RAC. Since the Code of Practice has not yet been tested in practice, the Rhodes plan will have a pilot character for the Mediterranean region. This, first part, gives the analysis of the situation based on the existing data on the collection, treatment and discharge of wastewaters. It also gives a brief review of criteria and standards defined by the local authorities, UN agencies and the European Community.
BERLENGI, G. 1992. Training Programme on Geographical Information System - Final Report. CAMP/1990-91/GR/GIS-TC.6. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. 23. ENG
It was estimated that geographical information systems (GIS) were a useful instrument for numerous forms of management of natural and urban resources. Therefore, within PAP/RAC, and with UNEP support, a team of experts was established and trained to perform training on GIS and on the use of the pcARC/INFO software for the needs of PAP's national projects in the Mediterranean. One of those projects is CAMP "The Island of Rhodes", within which this activity has produced the following results, summarised in this report: a team of local experts has been trained to work individually; appropriate hardware and the pcARC/INFO software have been installed; the basic GIS database has been established, a number of illustrations prepared, and several analyses performed.
KOSTARIDIS, G., and TSOTSOS, D. 1992. Environmental Impact Assessment of the Rhodes Wastewater Treatment Plant. CAMP/1991-1992/GR/EIA.1. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. 35. ENG
Since the traditional methods of environmental impact assessment for development projects were complicated and commanded high costs, UNEP has developed, in co-operation with MAP/PAP, a simplified method, adapted to developing countries. Upon a proposal by the Government of Greece, this method has been applied to the urban wastewater treatment plant of the city of Rhodes. The objective of the study was to help the decision makers offering them, already at an early stage of considering the project, its description and assessment of its environmental impacts.
DRAGICEVIC, M., KLARIC Z., CURL, G., FOKIALI-TSOLAKIDIS, P., COLLIGRIS, C., and ANASTASSIADIS, L. 1993. Study for the Carrying Capacity Assessment of the Central - Eastern Part of the Island of Rhodes. CAMP/1991-1992/GR/CC.1. Split: PAP/RAC. pp. 56. ENG
This study represents a practical application of the methodological instructions for performing carrying capacity assessment of an area for the development of tourism. The basic objective was to determine the optimum level of the future tourism development in the central-eastern part of the island of Rhodes, following the principles of sustainable development. Based on the analysis of collected data, proposals are made for the development of tourism in the area until the year 2010 with the maximum numbers of tourist beds distributed by the most important settlements.