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Rehabilitation and reconstruction of mediterranean historic settlements

In the period 1984-1993, PAP was very active in the field of conservation of historic settlements and sites. Its activity started with the analysis of national reports submitted by almost all Mediterranean countries in order to get an overview of general conditions, problems and practices of the rehabilitation of built heritage. This first stage was followed by the preparation of case studies characteristic of certain Mediterranean areas (European and Arab) presented in several workshops organised thorough the Mediterranean. On the bases of the results of these studies and workshops, PAP developed, in co-operation with UNESCO and some other specialised international organisations (ICCROM, ICOMOS), a methodological procedure applicable to Mediterranean countries for the rehabilitation of historic settlements which consists of four subsequent steps: (a) architectural surveying and analysis of the present state of conservation; (b) study of the historic evolution of buildings and sites; (c) processes of their evaluation; and (d) urban and architectural planning and design, implementation of works and maintenance. This methodological procedure is presented in detail in the relevant guidelines prepared in 1997. After this period, PAP activity in this field ceased due to the fact that, also within MAP, a complementary activity began, initiated by the Genoa Declaration from 1985 and being implemented by MAP Centre for "100 historic sites" in Marseilles.



PAP/RAC. 1997. Guidelines for the Rehabilitation of Mediterranean Historic Settlements - Volume I. PAP-/1997/G. Split: PAP/RAC. pp vi + 62. ENG

These guidelines are based on the results of the action "Rehabilitation and Reconstruction of Mediterranean Historic Settlements" which was implemented by PAP - UNEP, with the participation of designated experts from all Mediterranean countries, the European Union, UNESCO, ICCROM and ICOMOS, over the period 1984-1993, during which time a methodological procedure for the rehabilitation of historic settlements applicable to Mediterranean countries was gradually developed and tested through a number of case studies on selected Mediterranean historic towns. As a basis for the preparation of the guidelines were used individual contributions by the following authors: Bahri-Meddeb A., Binous J., Drocourt D., Jokilehto J., Marasovic J., Marasovic T., Morozzo M. D., and Zivas A. D.

JOKILEHTO, J. and MARASOVIC, T. 1997. Guidelines for the Rehabilitation of Mediterranean Historic Settlements. Volume II: Case Studies. PAP-5/1997/G. Split: PAP/RAC. pp iv + 69. ENG

This Volume II of the Guidelines for the rehabilitation of Mediterranean Historic Settlements contains a summarised presentation of the common methodological procedure for the rehabilitation of historic settlements applicable to Mediterranean countries based on five case studies (Plaka - Athens, Genoa, Marseilles, Split and Tunis - Hafsia). The illustrations, drawings, maps and plans are provided by the authors of the case studies.

BAHRI-MEDDEB, A. 1992. Evaluation critique de la méthodologie adoptée de restauration/réhabilitation et de son applicabilité dans les noyaux urbains arabes. PAP-5/W.5/Doc.7. Split: PAP/RAC. pp 25. FRA

Après une précision terminologique sur les mots de médina (ville) et casbah (forteresse), le document contient une synthèse des données sur les centres historiques arabes, faisant ressortir tant les caractères fondamentaux des médinas que les problèmes actuels des centres méditerranéens arabes. Dans le document sont également expliquées les doctrines de sauvegarde et les démarches développées dans les pays arabes de la Méditerranée et mises en valeur les recommandations émanant des pays méditerranéens, qu'elles concernent l'ensemble des pays méditerranéens ou qu'elles soient spécifiques aux pays arabes. Enfin, en commentant l'application des phases individuelles de la démarche méthodologique dans les pays arabes, l'auteur de ce document donne des suggestions pour l'amélioration et la modification de la méthodologie, compte tenu des conditions prévalant dans les noyaux historiques arabes.

ZIVAS, A. D. 1991. Methodological Approach to the Rehabilitation of Mediterranean Historic Settlements: The Experience of Athens/Approche méthodologique pour la réhabilitation des sites méditerranéens - L'expérience d'Athènes. PAP-5/W.5/Doc.2. Split: PAP/RAC. pp 15. ENG/FRA

This study conducted on the case of Plaka, the o ldest neighbourhood of Athens, is one of 7 case studies illustrating the application of the adopted methodology of conservation and rehabilitation of Mediterranean historic settlements. The strategy chosen in the case of the Plaka project was that of "small and consecutive steps" rather than large-scale, simultaneous interventions. The basic aim of the project was to: (a) protect Plaka as a whole rather than only its individual buildings; (b) protect it as a living part of Athens and not as a museum; (c) restore its traditional function and character as a residential area; and (d) provide a suitable framework for private initiatives under the control of public authorities.

MOROZZO, D. 1991. Methodological Approach to the Renewal and Rehabilitation of Mediterranean Historic Centres - Genoa's Experience/Approche méthodologique de la restauration/réhabilitation des centres historiques méditerranéens - L'expérience de Gênes. PAP-5/W.5/Doc.3. Split: PAP/RAC. pp 23. ENG/FRA

The study on the case of Genoa points out that the research and multidisciplinary analyses is the indispensable component of work on the revitalisation and restoration of the historic centre. The aim of the entire project is to re-integrate the historic centre in the urban tissue through appropriate planning which will allow for (a) re-definition of the compatible economic activities; and (b) re-establishment of the internal hierarchy within the street network and a proper relationship between the network of the historic centre and that of the neighbourhoods outside its perimeter. The study specially points out the need for the information of the public, training of the workers on all levels, and establishment of specialised teams for project execution. Finally, the study raises the need for legislation which would require as mandatory a systematic maintenance of buildings within the historic centre and anticipate the possibility of financially assisting the owners.

DROCOURT, D. and HO, A. D. 1991. Pour la rédaction de documents sur l'approche méthodologique à la restauration-réhabilitation des centres historiques méditerranéens. PAP-5/W.5/Doc.4. Split: PAP/RAC. pp 53. FRA

La présentation du cas de Marseille permet de suivre les grandes étapes de la procédure méthodologique de son restauration/réhabilitation, tout en souglinant la nécessité de: a) fixer clairement les objectifs dans la durée, car toute politique urbaine requiert du temps, b) définir un cadre réglementaire pour les activités de restauration, et c) désigner une autorité (institution) indisputable qui doit pouvoir diriger l'ensemble des interventions, de la négociation avec les propriétaires et les investisseurs jusqu'à l'utilisation et l'affectation des crédits et à l'application des dispositions réglementaires.


MARASOVIC, J. 1991. Methodological Approach to the Rehabilitation of Mediterranean Historic Settlements - Experiences of Split/Approche méthodologique à la restauration/réhabilitation des centres historiques méditerranéens - Expérience de Split. PAP-5/W.5/Doc.5. Split: PAP/RAC. pp 30. ENG/FRA

The study speaks of the work performed in the historic core of Split after the Marseilles workshop (excavations and restoration of the substructures of the southern section of the Diocletian's Palace) which confirmed the value of the adopted methodology. The study illustrates on a series of examples the surveying methods which experienced a real breakthrough owing to the use of computer techniques; and explains the elements of the detailed plan made for the historic core which confirmed the value of the three-dimensional presentation of the spatial evolution as one of the basis of the conservation projects.

UNEP and PAP/RAC. 1987. Experience of Mediterranean Historic Towns in the Integrated Process of Rehabilitation of Urban and Architectural Heritage - Documents produced in the second phase of the Priority Action (1986)/Expériences des villes historiques méditerranéennes en matière des processus integré de réhabilitation du patrimoine urbain et architectural - Textes rédigés au cours de la deuxième phase de l'action prioritaire (1986). MAP Technical Reports Series No. 14. Athens: MAP/UNEP-PAP/RAC. pp iv + 591. ENG/FRA

This document contains (a) 10 selected case studies covering a range of regional, typological, economic and other thematically relevant specificities (Nicosia - Cyprus, Rachid - Egypt, Marseille - France, Caesaria - Israel, Genoa - Italy, Fès - Morocco, Malaga - Spain, Medina in Tunis - Tunisia, Safranbolu - Turkey, and Split - Croatia); (b) a synthesis of these studies; and (c) the report of an international seminar held in Split in April 1986 which considered and discussed the presented studies. The criteria adopted in selecting the study areas was their representative character with regard to the issues of relevance for the conservation practice in Mediterranean historic towns.

ESMAEL, F. A., ALBOUHY, G., and HASSANIAN, M. 1987. Conservation and Rehabilitation of Rachid. PAP-5/W.5./Doc.6. Split: PAP/RAC. pp 64. ENG

The study places Rachid in a geographical and historical context; explains the present role of this historic area, main problems faced, a practical approach to the preservation of the historic heritage of Rachid and the adopted methodological procedure. The special value of the study is the way it illustrates the life in Rachid, its inhabitants and traditional crafts. At the end, the study offers a critical review of the work performed, and gives a series of suggestions and recommendations for further interventions in the area. Mention should be made that the study was produced in 1987, that is, before the adoption of the common methodology for the Mediterranean historic environments.

UNEP and PAP/RAC. 1986. Rehabilitation and Reconstruction of Mediterranean Historic Settlements - Documents produced in the first stage of the Priority Action (1984-1985)/Réhabilitation et reconstruction des établissements historiques méditerranéens - Textes rédigés au cours de la première phase de l'action prioritaire (1984-1985). MAP Technical Reports Series No. 11. Athens: MAP/UNEP-PAP/RAC. pp 158. ENG/FRA

This document contains (a) national reports of 9 Mediterranean countries (Cyprus, France, Greece, Israel, Italy, Morocco, Spain, Tunisia, and Yugoslavia) on the status of activities and experiences obtained in the field of rehabilitation, reconstruction and preservation of the Mediterranean built heritage; (b) a synthesis of these reports; (c) notes of an expert meeting held in Split in March 1985, and report of a seminar also held in Split two months later; and (d) a number of communications presented during these two events.


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