Our new web site is available at: paprac.org


In order to contribute to the implementation of one of the Genoa Declaration targets, PAP/RAC started in 1985 actions oriented to the improvement of solid and liquid waste management in the Mediterranean countries. Enjoying the support and collaboration of a number of international and national specialised organisations (such as WHO/EURO, EU, CEFIGRE, BRGM), PAP/RAC created a network of experts, organised several meetings and training courses, and produced a number of training materials on management and maintenance of liquid waste and on planning and design of liquid waste treatment plants in large Mediterranean cities. Also, two major documents were prepared, namely: Code of practice for liquid waste management and Code of practice for solid waste management. Although the results achieved through this action have been used in the framework of the first generation of CAMP projects, due to financial constraints, the action had to be temporarily set aside.



Medcities and ISR (EWC). 2003. Guidelines for Municipal Solid Waste Management in the Mediterranean Region, Barcelona, Medcities. ENG

(Download Parpal-waste.zip)

TEDESCHI, S. 1994. Disposal of Municipal Solid Waste: Sanitary Landfills, PAP/RAC, 55 p. + figures, tables. ENG
This document is addressed to the responsible authorities in their decisions and recommendations concerning the planning of sanitary landfills as one of the ways of managing urban solid waste. It presents the acquired experience and knowledge in disposing non-hazardous waste of municipal origin. The document is divided into 6 chapters: Introduction; Purpose of the document and target users; General principles for solid waste management; Site selection for municipal solid waste disposal (topography and soil, geology and hydrogeology, climate and hydrology, land use, costs of landfilling, public acceptance, assessing the suitability of landfill site); Environmental and health impacts of solid waste (leachate, landfill gases, other impacts, environmental impact assessment); Sanitary landfills (planning and projects, operating procedures, monitoring of environmental and health impacts, economic aspects, experiences and common problems, management procedures).
RIBAROVIC, Z. 1994. Solid Waste Management in Mediterranean Countries: Case Study "The Kastela Bay", Croatia, PAP/RAC, 19 p. ENG
This case study on the neutralization of industrial and domestic wastes in the communes of Split, Solin, Ka{tela, Trogir, Sinj and Omi{ is part of a project which was jointly financed by the World Bank and the Municipalities of Split and Ka{tela. In designing any system of waste management the main problem is how to neutralize wastes after the measures have been taken to avoid waste generation as well as those for the exploitation of useful substances from the wastes. In this particular case, the dilemma was solved in favour of landfills rather than incineration. The study focuses on the following topics: principles of urban solid waste management; hitherto practices and specific aspects of solid waste management in the study area; management concept proposed in the study (main principles, and phasing of the project); feasibility of the proposed concept; authorities responsible for the control of the waste management system (an Ecological Council) through appropriate administrative and professional structures; financing; possibilities of getting loans from the World Bank and paying back of the loans through efficient taxation.
HEFFER, M. 1993. Treatment and Reuse of Municipal Wastewater for Irrigation, PAP/RAC, 37 p. ENG
This study is yet another output of PAP in its effort to enable transfer of knowledge and experience among Mediterranean countries on the management of water resources in general, and waste water in particular. Reuse of waste water for irrigation is one of the efficient ways of water resources management in the areas lacking water which, at the same time, contributes to the protection of coastal and marine environment. The study describes two treatment and reuse projects in Israel: (a) the Dan Region treatment plant and recharge-recovery system; and (b) the Ra'anana City wastewater project (description and technical characteristics of the system, process management and effluent quality, reuse costs and benefits, public health and environmental protection).
TEDESCHI, S. 1992. Planning and Designing of Urban Waste Water Treatment Projects in Mediterranean Coastal Towns (Introductory communication) / Planification et conception des projets d'assainissement dans les agglomérations côtieres méditerranéennes (Communication d'introduction), PAP/RAC, 90 p. + drawings, tables. ENG/FRA
The aim of this document, presented at the International Training Course on Urban Waste Water Treatment (Rabat, 1992), was to transfer knowledge and experience in the methodological approach to planning and designing the collection and discharge of municipal waste waters into the coastal sea under acceptable sanitary and ecological criteria. The document contains the following 6 Chapters: Introduction; Marine Environment (geophysical, oceanographic, chemical, and biological data); Sources of Pollution (domestic, industrial and agricultural wastewaters, urban runoff, impact of wastes on sea water quality); Quality Criteria and Standards (sea water uses, quality criteria for the coastal sea, standards for effluents); Protection of the Marine Ecosystem (wastewater treatment, wastewater discharge into the coastal sea; discharges into bays and estuaries, alternatives of water reuse); and Water Discharge by Means of Marine Outfalls (initial dilution, diffusion and dispersion, disappearance of micro-organisms, designing marine outfalls, construction and maintenance of marine outfalls, monitoring).
MAIFREDI, P.; PICCAZZO, M. 1991. Code of Practice for the Management of Urban Solid Waste in Coastal Mediterranean Countries / Guide pratique de gestion des déchets solides urbains dans les pays riverains de la Méditerranée, PAP/RAC, i-v + 66 p. PAP-7/COP.1. ENG/FRA
Taking into account the specific conditions prevailing in different Mediterranean countries, this practical guide is elaborated with the aim to assist the responsible authorities in choosing the methods and techniques which will enable the problems of household and other solid wastes to be resolved efficiently. It is divided into 13 Chapters: Introduction; Collection of basic data (waste quality, quantity, origin and composition); Criteria for the choice of collection methods (influence of the local conditions, socio-economic parameters, choice of equipment); Organization of the collection (in urban, and in rural areas); Various possibilities of transfer and transport; Methods of processing and disposal; Landfilling (site research and study, criteria for the choice of landfill type and operation methods, protection of the environment, types of wastes which can be disposed for landfilling); Composting (procedure, area needed for a composting plant, choice of the appropriate composting plant); Incineration (general characteristics, procedure, protection of the environment); Resource recovery (principles, initial conditions, recycling procedure); Environmental impact assessment; Importance of service organization (management, training of personnel); and maintenance (organization of maintenance, equipment).
KATSAOUNIS, A.; TSOTSOS, D. 1990. Code of Practice for Environmentally Sound Management of Liquid Waste Discharge in the Mediterranean Sea / Guide pratique de gestion, saine pour l'environnement, des effluents a évacuer dans la mer Méditerranée, PAP/RAC, i-iv + 217 p. + Annexes I-VII PAP-7/COP.2. ENG/FRA
In conformity with the provisions of the Protocol for the Protection of the Mediterranean Sea against Pollution from Land-based Sources (1983), and the Genoa Declaration (1985), PAP launched a series of actions towards the promotion of an appropriate liquid waste discharge and pollution control programme, this Code of Practice being one of the outputs of this effort. The document is divided into 7 chapters, namely: Introduction, Local Conditions (water uses, conservation of the ecosystem, coastal water, pollution sources); Quality Criteria (assimilative capacity of the marine environment, sea water quality criteria, effluent characteristics); Systems Design (general characteristics of the collection and treatment systems, environmental conditions, information system network, planning stages and programme formulation); Environmental Impact Assessment (concept of EIA, marine pollution implications of coastal area development); Organization and Finance (establishment of a coastal water control organization, management of waste water facilities, monitoring of coastal water and effluents, research, and funding); Manpower and Training (manpower and safety, and training).
PAP/RAC - Ville de Marseille, 1990. Station d'épuration en zone littorale méditerranéenne / Sewage Treatment Plant in Mediterranean Coastal Municipalities, 275 p. + drawings, tables. ENG/FRA
This document provides general recommendations addressed to decision makers in the field of planning, designing and exploitation of sewage treatment plants in Mediterranean coastal cities. The report is structured in 14 chapters, namely: The marine environment; History of the sewage treatment network of Marseilles; The campaign against liquid pollution; The centralized sanitation computer network; The marine environment in Cortiou; General characteristics of the marine environment in Cortiou; Studies for the Marseilles sewage treatment plant; Purification scheme studies; A methodological approach to wastewater treatment designs in large agglomerations; The Sanitary Department budget; Realization of the Marseilles sewage treatment plant; Community control of operations; Disposal standards; and Study of marine environment in a zone of urban pollution.
PAP/RAC - CEFIGRE, France, 1988. Sewage Treatment Plants Management and Maintenance / Gestion et exploitation des stations d'épuration du bassin méditerranéen, 290 p. (TC.1), PAP/RAC - CEFIGRE, France, 1990, 290 p. (TC.3). ENG/FRA
This document offers practical information for the appropriate and rational operation and maintenance of wastewater treatment plants, and for the improvement of the quality of coastal waters. The text is thematically divided into 5 parts: general aspects of sewage treatment (composition and characteristics of sewage, importance of sewage treatment, sewage treatment processes, failures in sewage treatment plants, waste discharge regulations); treatment of domestic sewage (preliminary treatment, settling, flotation, physical and chemical treatment, biological treatment, lagooning, activated sludge processes, tertiary treatment); treatment of sludge; odour control; operation and maintenance of treatment plants, control measures, safety and hygiene.

Content of this site, unless otherwise noted, © 2005-2017 Priority Actions Programme All Rights Reserved. v2.0.15 powered by IT laganini . org