Welcome to PAP/RAC Mediterranean Coastal Alert! This newsletter is regularly updated monthly. It contains abstracts of selected current articles and archives on various environmental themes, in particular those dealing with all aspects of coastal issues. The selection is made from the articles published in the leading international scientific journals. This newsletter is an excellent way of keeping you updated with coastal studies and processes.
This study has two fundamental objectives, the first of which is to analyse the recent evolution of marine coastal management in Spain from the perspective of the State Public Administration (SPA). As the body primarily responsible for managing the maritime-terrestrial public domain (MTPD), the Ministry of the Environment’s Directorate General of Coasts (DGC) is the institution of reference at this administrative level. The second objective is to confirm that the so-called Decalogue for Coastal Management used in previous studies serves as a guide for assessing these types of public policies.
This study’s interest lies in the fundamental role that an assessment - qualitative in this case – of any public policy plays in improving the Administration. Furthermore, institutions across all countries must make concerted efforts to advance in their management of marine coastal zones and resources, in view of the global crisis they are facing.
The Decalogue, which has proved to be a very useful tool for this study and assessing the advances achieved, was used to analyse the SPA coastal management model of the latest legislation. The main conclusion is that some significant progress has been made, yet on the whole, it has barely been able to transform structures, at times because the changes did not affect all the elements in the management scheme and at others, because they were implemented too slowly.
Perhaps what is most striking is that, as an SPA coastal management institution, the DGC has not yet been affected by substantial changes in its internal organisation. And this may indicate that there is still no integrated political perspective for coastal marine issues. In any case, what concerns most is that the majority of key elements in the SPA coastal management scheme as a whole have not advanced significantly.
Keywords: Decalogue for Coastal Management; Public policy assessment in Spain.
Source: Barragán Muñoz, J.M. (2010); “Coastal management and public policy in Spain”, Ocean and Coastal Management, Vol. 53, Issues 5-6, May-June 2010, Pages 209-217; Available online: 13 April 2010, under DOI:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2010.04.006.
The human history of coastal regions around the world has been under assault for decades, from forces that include dam building, coastal modifications, the destruction of wetlands, marine erosion, population growth and rampant development, looting, and other processes. Global warming will exacerbate the destruction of cultural resources in coastal zones through accelerated sea level rise, intensified storm cycles, and related coastal erosion. Although average global sea levels have been rising for ∼20,000 years, they slowed dramatically about 7,000 years ago. Rates of sea level rise now appear to be increasing rapidly due to growing anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. Global warming and rising seas, especially when combined with population growth and the implementation of measures designed to protect endangered coastal properties, threaten the deep maritime history of human migrations, settlement, and adaptations in coastal areas around the world. Ranging in age from the mid-Pleistocene to recent historic times, coastal archaeological sites contain invaluable data on ancient coastal societies, fisheries, and ecosystems. Archaeologists, historians, and other cultural resource managers must do more to anticipate, evaluate, and mitigate the effects of global warming, sea level rise, and coastal erosion on the long history of human maritime cultures.
Keywords: Global warming; Sea-level rise; Coastal erosion; Heritage resources.
Source: McVey Erlandson, J. (2010); “As the world warms: rising seas, coastal archaeology, and the erosion of maritime history”, Journal of Coastal Conservation; Received: 29 March 2010; Revised: 1 May 2010; Accepted: 21 May 2010; Published online: 9 June 2010, under DOI: 10.1007/s11852-010-0104-5; ISSN: 1400-0350 (Print) 1874-7841 (Online).
Traditionally the coastal zone of the easternmost (Russian) part of the Gulf of Finland has not been considered as an area of active litho- and morpho-dynamics, but a recent study has shown that the easternmost part of the coastal zone suffers from erosion. Within some coastal segments the shoreline recession rate reaches 2 – 2.5 m/year. As well as determining the hydrodynamic reasons for recent erosion acceleration, important geological and geomorphic features of coastal zone which influenced the litho-dynamics were established. The Kurortny District of St. Petersburg is located along the northern coast of the Gulf of Finland to the west of the St. Petersburg Flood Protection Facility. It has special importance as a unique recreation zone of the North-West of Russia. Coastal erosion is one of the most serious problems of the area. The analysis of historical materials, archive aerial photographs and modern high-resolution satellite images have shown that advancing parts of coast are almost non-existent with most sections of the coast being eroded and further retreating. Field monitoring between 2004 and 2007 showed intense damage to sandy beaches during autumn and winter storms and progressive erosion of the dunes system. Among the most important natural reasons for the erosion processes are that the coastline is open to storm waves induced by westerly and south-westerly winds, the geological structure of coastal area (easily eroded Quaternary deposits) and a sediment deficit. In some areas sediment loss was the result of the submarine coastal slope morphology (a steep slope of a narrow submarine terrace within the area of sediment drift discharge), with erosion of an alongshore submarine sandy terrace and erosion runnels at the depth 8–12 m. The situation becomes worse due to anthropogenic impact. The southern coastal zone dynamic is also very active. According to an aerial and satellite photos analysis from 1975–1976 to 1989–1990, sandy beaches to the west of Lebyazhye village were eroded up to 30 m, and near Bolshaya Izora village up to 70 m. The comparison of coastline GPS survey with old nautical and topographic charts published in the 1980s shows the considerable change.
Keywords: Coastal erosion; Eastern Gulf of Finland.
Source: Ryabchuk, D., Spiridonov, M., Zhamoida, V., Nesterova, E. and Sergeev, A. (2010); “Long term and short term coastal line changes of the Eastern Gulf of Finland. Problems of coastal erosion”, Journal of Coastal Conservation; Received: 17 November 2009; Revised: 26 May 2010; Accepted: 28 May 2010; Published online: 19 June 2010, under DOI: 10.1007/s11852-010-0105-4; ISSN: 1400-0350 (Print) 1874-7841 (Online).
To detect the spatial characteristics of coastal landforms in a section of the Nile Delta region (Egypt) between 1984 and 2006, a multi-temporal satellite imagery was examined. The study area between Gamasa drain and Kitchner drain (Northern Nile Delta) shows significant changes that are supposed to be functions of the Aeolian and coastal processes. This is, however, not the case where unprecedented human activities played a trigger factor in reshaping this area. The intervention of human activities in this area has resulted in a significant transformation of the existing landforms and introduced new land-use classes. Remote sensing techniques offered a real-time source of information that aided in determining 11 landforms or use classes. A Geographic Information Systems (GIS) spatial analysis model has generated a spatial matrix that quantified the rate of changes and therefore defined the controlling factors of such a highly dynamic environment. The local economy and socio-economic circumstances have been shown to be driving forces of landforms transformation in favour of developing reclaimed land and fish farms. These two land-use classes were significantly increased by 37% and 11% of the total area in the last two decades, respectively.
Keywords: Land use; coastal landforms; remote sensing; GIS; Nile delta, Egypt.
Source: Islam H. Abou El-Magd and ElSayed A. Hermas (2010); “Human impact on the coastal landforms in the area between Gamasa and Kitchner Drains, Northern Nile Delta, Egypt”, Journal of Coastal Research: Vol. 26, No. 3, Pages 541-548; Received: 15 December 2008; Accepted: 12 February 2010; Published online: May 2010.