Welcome to PAP/RAC Mediterranean Coastal Alert! This newsletter is regularly updated monthly. It contains abstracts of selected current articles and archives on various environmental themes, in particular those dealing with all aspects of coastal issues. The selection is made from the articles published in the leading international scientific journals. This newsletter is an excellent way of keeping you updated with coastal studies and processes.
The coming into effect of the Directive 2008/56/EC (Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD)) will induce European Union member States to create mechanisms for managing maritime space in order to comply with the goals set out in this binding legislation. This leads one to think that marine spatial planning in various countries in the EU will be directed at complying with the Directive's environmental goals, as is the case in Spain, rather than undertaking proactive planning for developing the maritime sectors. To put the case of Spain into perspective, a review is conducted of the initiatives taken, especially in Europe and the European Union, exploring the correlations between the main focuses of the maritime sectors and the planning systems. The analysis of the Spanish initiative demonstrates how the maritime economy model and geopolitical factors explain the planning options for the marine environment. In other respects, with the coming into effect of the MSFD, a dual institutional course for marine spatial planning seems to be opening up in the EU: Integrated Maritime Policy vs. the Marine Strategy Framework Directive.
Source: J. L. Suárez de Vivero and J. C. Rodríguez Mateos (2011); “The Spanish approach to marine spatial planning. Marine Strategy Framework Directive vs. EU Integrated Maritime Policy“, Science Direct, Article in Press, Corrected Proof; Received: 25 January 2011; Revised: 3 March 2011; Accepted: 4 March 2011; Available online: 30 March 2011 under DOI:10.1016/j.marpol.2011.03.002.
Given the severe impacts of extreme heat on natural and human systems, we attempt to quantify the likelihood that rising greenhouse gas concentrations will result in a new, permanent heat regime in which the coolest warm-season of the 21st century is hotter than the hottest warm-season of the late 20th century. Our analyses of global climate model experiments and observational data reveal that many areas of the globe are likely to permanently move into such a climate space over the next four decades, should greenhouse gas concentrations continue to increase. In contrast to the common perception that high-latitude areas face the most accelerated response to global warming, our results demonstrate that in fact tropical areas exhibit the most immediate and robust emergence of unprecedented heat, with many tropical areas exhibiting a 50% likelihood of permanently moving into a novel seasonal heat regime in the next two decades. We also find that global climate models are able to capture the observed intensification of seasonal hot conditions, increasing confidence in the projection of imminent, permanent emergence of unprecedented heat.
Keywords: Extreme heat; Impacts; Natural and human systems; Rising greenhouse gas concentrations; Heat regime.
Source: N. S. Diffenbaugh and M. Scherer (2011); “Observational and model evidence of global emergence of permanent, unprecedented heat in the 20th and 21st centuries. A letter”, Climatic Change Journal; Received: 8 March 2011; Accepted: 16 May 2011; Published online: 7 June 2011 under DOI:10.1007/s10584-011-0112.
In the present study, a definition-based concept for scientific assessment of sustainable tourism is presented. Two contrast control indicators for sustainability are introduced: ecological damage loading and recovery capacity. Thus this concept provides a definite methodology of spelling out and operationalising definitions of sustainable tourism. As a case study, the proposed concept has been applied to Suncheon Bay Ecological Park, which is an extremely unique saltwater wetland in the Korean Peninsula and thus designated as a preservation area in the light of ecological regeneration and protection. The ecological damage loading is determined by the pollution loading into water bodies and the recovery capacity is determined by regenerative concentration indicators of representative species times assimilation factor of the bay. Marine park ecology, which is significantly governed by water quality, is much simple to calculate the carrying capacity when compared to the inland park ecology.
Keywords: Carrying capacity; Sustainable tourism; Balance concept; Ecological Damage Loading and Recovery Capacity; Suncheon Bay Ecological Park, Korean Peninsula; Marine park ecology.
Source: S. Lee (2011); “Carrying capacity of sustainable tourism based on the balance concept of ecological damage loading and recovery capacity”, Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue 64, 2011 (Proceedings of the 11th International Coastal Symposium), 1297 – 1301. Szczecin, Poland, ISSN 0749-0208.
Since 2001, Venezuela has developed legal tools oriented towards the conservation and regulation of uses in its coastal zone. The Law of Coastal Zones (2001) establishes the parts that constitute the coastal zone and the dimensions of its extension towards land and sea. The length of the coastal line extends for 6,068 km, distributed over 14 states of Venezuela’s 23 states. This space constitutes 10,1% of the national territory and concentrates 18,20% of the national population. The law provides the basis for the development of the National Plan for Integrated Coastal Zone Management (NPICZM). In order to develop this Plan, from 2006 there were Work Committee’s created on different governmental scales integrated by stakeholders, planners and communities in different organisational forms. The development of the NPICZM was based in a national strategy designed from the state and local vision with the inclusion of aboriginal affairs. The aim here is to establish spatial and temporal references to guarantee the conservation and sustainable use of the coastal zone. 88 Coastal Units, 15 Uses and 10 Management Programs were defined. 9 National Policies directed towards conservation and sustainable development within the coastal zones were developed. From these policies, 3 directives and 7 guidelines to regulate the intensity of the uses in each coastal unit were created. With this entire basis, Venezuelan coastal zone is nowadays a “space with its own identity”. ICZM process has established itself in less than ten years, placing Venezuela in front compared to other countries in the South American region.
Keywords: Integrated Coastal Zone Management; Venezuela; The Law of Coastal Zones; National Plan for Integrated Coastal Zone Management (NPICZM); ICZM process.
Source: A. Castillo, M. García, A. Padrón, M.T. Abogado, A. Pino and F. Pérez (2011); “Integrated Coastal Zone Management in Venezuela: A space with its own identity”, Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue 64, 2011 (Proceedings of the 11th International Coastal Symposium), 1320 – 1325. Szczecin, Poland, ISSN 0749-0208.