Welcome to PAP/RAC Mediterranean Coastal Alert! This newsletter is regularly updated monthly. It contains abstracts of selected current articles and archives on various environmental themes, in particular those dealing with all aspects of coastal issues. The selection is made from the articles published in the leading international scientific journals. This newsletter is an excellent way of keeping you updated with coastal studies and processes.
Integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) would be significantly enhanced if there was greater connection to the field of social impact assessment (SIA). SIA is the process of managing the social issues of planned interventions (projects, policies, plans, and programs). SIA can also be used to consider the effects of gradual landscape change. Key concepts in SIA that are applicable to ICZM include: sense of place and place attachment, islandness, cumulative effects, social carrying capacity, not in my backyard (NIMBY) responses, resilience and vulnerability, corporate social responsibility, social legitimacy, social license to operate, seachange communities and second home ownership. SIA incorporates stakeholder analysis, public participation and community engagement not only to predict the impacts of planned interventions or policy changes, but also to develop effective adaptive management and enhancement strategies. The paper presents a general case outlining the potential use of SIA in ICZM, with reference to the Wadden Sea Region where applicable. Important lessons (aphorisms, frankisms) from SIA are highlighted.
Keywords: Social impact assessment; Social impacts; Place attachment; Amenity landscapes; Social resistance.
Source: Frank Vanclay (2012); “The potential application of social impact assessment in integrated coastal zone management”, Ocean & Costal Management – In Press, Accepted manuscript; Received: 29 July 2011; Revised: 4 May 2012; Accepted: 11 May 2012; Available online: 22 May 2012, under DOI: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2012.05.016.
The Gold Coast, Australia is a coastal resort city whose urban environment has evolved through a series of human interventions on the natural shoreline. Such cities rely on a perceived high quality environment which in turn is reliant on continuing maintenance (e.g. beach nourishment, inlet dredging, drainage). Climate change consequently holds particular challenges for coastal resort cities. Sea-level rise impacts are likely to be manifested in increased frequency of flooding and beach erosion episodes. Here we consider adaptation options for the city under various future sea-level rise (SLR) scenarios at the high end of current predictions for the next century (+1 m, +2 m and +5 m) with the proviso that the beach and waterways must be preserved to enable the city to continue to exist as a resort.
We conclude that pre-planned adaptation would probably enable the city to survive SLR of 1 m. An unplanned response to the same SLR would likely be characterised by periodic crises, growing uncertainty and public unease and would have marginal chances of success. For a 2 m SLR we contend that even with an adaptation plan in place, the scale of measures required would severely stretch the city's resources. Under a 5 m SLR over the next century we do not believe that any amount of planning would enable the city to survive as a coastal resort.
Any adaptation to SLR would involve increased cost to maintain the artificial coastal environment. Adaptation options are particularly constrained by the widespread development around the waterways of the back-barrier area. Unlike other coastal cities, resorts depend on a public perception of a high quality environment. Maintaining this perception under SLR imposes particular adaptation constraints on resort cities.
Source: J.A.G. Cooper and C. Lemckert (2012); “Extreme sea-level rise and adaptation options for coastal resort cities: A qualitative assessment from the Gold Coast, Australia”, Ocean & Costal Management, Vol. 64, August 2012, pages 1- 14; Available online: 18 April 2012, under DOI: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2012.04.001.
This paper deals with a cost effective analysis of two options to increase the water supply in Israel. The first policy is to divert 300 Million Cubic Meters (MCM) of water from the Sea of Galilee (SOG) to the central part of Israel. This policy is the existing one. The second policy is to replace this diversion with desalinated water plants that will be built on the Mediterranean Coast (MC). These two options carry both market and non-market consequences. The first policy has a negative effect on the SOG itself due to the lower lake level. It also carries some negative consequences on the Jordan River (JR) and the Dead Sea (DS) which are located downstream. The second policy involves water production at a higher cost and has negative external effects of scarce coastal land usage and high energy consumption. A Payment Card (PC) Contingent Valuation (CV) survey was performed at the four sites (the SOG, the DS, the JR and the MS). We show that when one takes these non-use values into account, the preferred solution will shift from the usage of the SOG to the desalination policy.
Keywords: Cost effective analysis; Water supply increase; Integrated water management policy; Desalinated water plants; The Jordan River basin.
Source: N. Becker, D. Lavee and T. Tavor (2012); “Desalinate or divert? Coastal non-market values as a decision tool for an integrated water management policy: The case of the Jordan River basin”, Ocean & Costal Management, Vol. 64, August 2012, pages 27 - 36; Available online: 19 April 2012, under DOI: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2012.04.008.
The relationships between two traditional economic valuation methods, Travel Cost Method (TCM) and Hedonic Prices (HPs) are tested in a sun-and-beach tourist-oriented area in the North-western Mediterranean coast in order to appraise/value beach integral quality and its attributes. Traditional economic methods do not seem to capture the aggregate quality of beaches, although this study has shown that positive relationships were found between HP and integral beach quality. Instead, these methods are more (positively) related to specific aspects such as Services and Facilities Quality, Natural Conditions Quality (dune system development) and Access and Parking Quality. The results of this study show that these methods do not sufficiently value beach social–ecological resources at the study site. In this paper we also compared users’ economic beach valuation (using TCM and HP) with the expenditure on general maintenance and sediment management by local managers. The results show an important gap between investments made by managers (less than 1 million €/year) and users’ economic valuation (more than 1 million €/day at the peak of the season). These results suggest the feasibility of establishing a beach management tax for beach-related economic activities that could be used to improve the weakest aspects of beach management in the region.
Keywords: Economic valuation; North-western Mediterranean coast; Beach integral quality.
Source: E. Ariza, R. Ballester, R. Rigall-I-Torrent, A. Saló, E. Roca, M. Villares, J. A. Jiménez and R. Sardá (2012); “On the relationship between quality, users’ perception and economic valuation in NW Mediterranean beaches”, Ocean & Costal Management, Vol. 63, July 2012, pages 55 - 65; Available online: 16 April 2012, under DOI: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2012.04.002.