Welcome to PAP/RAC Mediterranean Coastal Alert! This newsletter is regularly updated monthly. It contains abstracts of selected current articles and archives on various environmental themes, in particular those dealing with all aspects of coastal issues. The selection is made from the articles published in the leading international scientific journals. This newsletter is an excellent way of keeping you updated with coastal studies and processes.
The Munakata coastal area, characterized by its aesthetic landscapes is one of the case studies for promoting the development of local Integrated Coastal Management (ICM) initiatives in Japan. The formulation of the Munakata ICM program and the implementation of two primary activities on resource use conflicts related to coastal tourism and recreational use are discussed in this paper. Results from a questionnaire survey on rules for co-ordinating and alleviating use-related conflicts are also presented.
Keywords: Integrated Coastal Management (ICM); Case study; Coastal tourism; Rules for co-ordination mechanism; Questionnaire survey.
Source: H. Kojima, T. Kubo and A. Kinoshita (2012); “Integrated coastal management as a tool for local governance of coastal resources: A case study of Munakata Coastal Zone”, In Press, Accepted Manuscript, To appear in: Ocean and Coastal Management under DOI: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2012.07.020; Received: 12 March 2012; Accepted: 21 July 2012.
In the Mediterranean there are a number of key issues that demand attention in relation to the application of Ecosystem-Based Fisheries Management. First, this region is considered a biodiversity hotspot where the pressures of human activities on ecosystems are predicted to increase. Second, fisheries in the Mediterranean, despite its significant impact, have not adopted the widely advocated ecosystem-based management. And third, the complex political situation in the Mediterranean, with many countries involved and a large fraction of international waters obstructs the adoption of a common management strategy. The way forward for ecosystem protection requires an enhancement of marine spatial planning, throughout the establishment of a network of sustainable managed areas. This network should be implemented at the Mediterranean regional scale, improving and integrating the best available knowledge to inform decision making and develop regional-based strategies. A regional management body should assume the co-ordination to ensure the success of a common strategy and safeguard the correct functioning of an ecosystem-based management. But first Mediterranean countries need to overcome their lack of co-operation and adopt a trans-boundary strategy.
Source: S. de Juan, J. Moranta, H. Hinz, C. Barberá, C. Ojeda-Martinez, D. Oro, F. Ordines, E. Ólafsson, M. Demestre, E. Massutí and J. Lleonart (2012); “A regional network of sustainable managed areas as the way forward for the implementation of an Ecosystem-Based Fisheries Management in the Mediterranean”, Ocean and Coastal Management, Volume 65, September 2012, Pages 51 – 58; Available online: 5 May 2012.
Since the mid-20th century, most large cities of the United States have been warming at more than twice the rate of the planet as a whole. While many municipal and state governments have developed climate action plans designed to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, rising concentrations of greenhouse gases typically are not the strongest driver of warming in cities. Our purpose is to evaluate the likely effectiveness of municipal and state level climate action plans in slowing the pace of warming in the most populous U.S. cities over the near-to-medium term. We employ time-series temperature trend analyses to differentiate global from local-scale climate change mechanisms in large U.S. cities between 1961 and 2010. We then review all climate action plans developed at the municipal or state level in the 50 most populous metropolitan regions to identify the various emissions control and heat management strategies incorporated into these plans. The results of our assessment suggest that the climate change management policies adopted through municipal and state climate action plans may fail to adequately protect human health and welfare from rapidly rising temperatures. Based on our review, we recommend that municipal and state governments broaden climate action plans include heat management strategies in addition to greenhouse gas emissions controls.
Keywords: Climate change; Mitigation; Land use; Urban heat island effect.
Source: B. Stone, J. Vargo and D. Habeeb (2012); “Managing climate change in cities: Will climate action plans work?”, Landscape and Urban Planning, Volume 107, Issue 3, 15 September 2012, Pages 263 – 271; Received: 16 September 2011; Received in revised form: 16 May 2012; Accepted: 22 May 2012; Available online: 10 July 2012, under DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2012.05.0.
Drivers of coastal land use change (CLUC) were assessed between 1990 and 2006 in Selangor, Malaysia. Land-use maps for the state (Selangor, Malaysia) for 1990 and 2006 and their respective biophysical and socio-economic data were obtained from the Malaysian departments of agriculture, survey and statistics respectively. Vector maps of socio-economic variables were prepared in a GIS environment. All maps (land-use maps and their potential drivers) were gridded and compared at three spatial scales using logistic regression analysis. Results indicated that agricultural practises were particularly responsible for coastal land-use change. Coastal lands were converted to agricultural uses as a result of increased accessibility, suitable slope and favourable climatic condition of the areas. Findings further indicated that the impact of urbanization is just becoming an important factor of coastal land-use change. While efforts of the government at coastal resources restoration and conservation is commendable, a political will is still required in achieving sustainable development of the coastal areas in order to fulfil the environmental component of the ongoing Vision 2020 economic development plan.
Keywords: Drivers of coastal land-use change (CLUC); Malaysia; Land-use maps; Vision 2020 economic development plan.
Source: A.O. Olaniyi, A.M. Abdullah, M.F. Ramli and M.S. Alias (2012); “Assessment of drivers of coastal land-use change in Malaysia”; Ocean and Coastal Management, Volume 67, October 2012, Pages 113 – 123; Available online: 28 June 2012, under DOI: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2012.05.029.