Welcome to PAP/RAC Mediterranean Coastal Alert! This newsletter is regularly updated monthly. It contains abstracts of selected current articles and archives on various environmental themes, in particular those dealing with all aspects of coastal issues. The selection is made from the articles published in the leading international scientific journals. This newsletter is an excellent way of keeping you updated with coastal studies and processes.
Despite the place-based nature of integrated coastal management (ICM) implementation and the importance of considering country-specific knowledge, a number of uniformities in ICM implementation have been distinguished. In this paper, the theoretical validation of a place-based ICM implementation model developed for South Africa's sector-based governance system is undertaken using predefined theoretically based evaluation criteria derived from such uniformities. Using an incremental, adaptive research process, the original place-based model is evaluated and then refined to enhance its theoretical validity. During the refinement of the implementation model, two interdependent yet distinctive cycles, the resource cycle and the actor cycle, emerged. The dual cycles in ICM implementation represent the process of inclusive ecosystem-based resource management (the resource cycle) capacitated by a supporting network of actors (the actor cycle). The new model incorporates insights from the recent literature on adaptive management in the fields of integrated water management and social-ecological systems into ICM theory and practice. Further, the learning-by-doing process that characterises ICM implementation is expanded by connecting place-based design and theoretically based learning.
Source: S. Taljaard, J. H. Slinger and J. van der Merwe (2013); “Dual adaptive cycles in implementing integrated coastal management”, Ocean & Coastal Management, Volume 84, November 2013, Pages 23 - 30; Available online under: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2013.07.003
The ecosystem-based approaches to management being implemented in many marine protected areas require broad knowledge of these special places to achieve any measure of success in effective execution. Ecosystem-based management holds great promise for managing human activities that can significantly influence natural resources, more effectively using this broader context of sustaining ecosystem structure and function to guide management decision making. However, socio-ecological systems are a product of their history. It has been suggested that the emerging idea of defining and understanding “maritime cultural landscapes” may be a way to acquire a better understanding of this history of human/environment interaction. The US National Marine Sanctuary System has recognized the potential value of integrating ecosystem-based management and maritime cultural landscape approaches to marine protected areas management, and is embarking on developing management models that can more clearly demonstrate this potential value. The deeper knowledge of both natural and cultural resources of marine protected areas, and how these have changed over time, offered by this integrated approach is likely to be a critical factor in providing effective stewardship of these special places.
Keywords: Marine Protected Areas; Ecosystem-based management; Maritime Cultural Landscapes.
Source: B. W. Barr (2013); “Understanding and managing marine protected areas through integrating ecosystem based management within maritime cultural landscapes: Moving from theory to practice”, Ocean & Coastal Management, Volume 84, November 2013, Pages 184 – 192; Available online under: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2013.08.011
In Japan, the Guideline for Integrated Coastal Management Plans (Guideline) was issued in 2000 to promote planning and implementation of Integrated Coastal Management (ICM). However, to date, no local governments have developed ICM plans in line with the Guideline. This paper clarifies the reasons for the poor implementation using a theoretical approach, the Policy Implementation Framework developed by Mazmanian and Sabatier. Also, an international comparison was conducted of acts and policies related to ICM in the United States, Republic of Korea, European Union, and Partnerships for Environmental Management for the Seas of East Asia (PEMSEA). Lack of a scheme that would provide national subsidies to local governments after approval of their ICM plans by the national government, the unviable districting of coastal areas in which they exceed the single administrative boundary of a local government, existence of similar initiatives for Seacoast Conservation Plans which are somewhat overlapping with ICM plans, and the diminished position of the coordinating national agency are identified as major factors hindering implementation of the Guideline. The findings of this paper should serve as a reference to the national government of Japan in avoiding similar deficiencies with the Guideline when developing detailed framework/institutional arrangements to promote ICM planning and implementation in the future, and could also be of assistance to countries developing national policies/strategies on ICM.
Source: K. Wakita and N. Yagi (2013); “Evaluating Integrated Coastal Management planning policy in Japan: Why the Guideline 2000 has not been implemented”, Ocean & Coastal Management, Volume 84, November 2013, Pages 97 – 106; Available online under: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2013.07.012
The complex nature of marine and coastal ecosystems combined with the inaccessibility and invisibility of the majority of their goods and services call for tailored approaches to valuation. Furthermore, a deliberative approach is necessary to support emerging policy initiatives and decision-making processes, and this paper presents a participatory framework for valuing marine and coastal ecosystem services. The framework provides a coherent process for the identification and valuation of these services through the active involvement of stakeholder groups. The process begins with "set the scene", a stage in which institutional analysis and procedures for stakeholder involvement are deployed. A value elicitation stage, "deepen understanding", follows to determine the impacts of policy and/or project proposals. This stage involves the identification of the affected ecosystem services, the variations on the flow of services and the associated ecological, social and economic values. The final stage of "articulate values" fosters the integration of knowledge into policy and decision-making processes. The proposed framework adds communicative and informative features to valuation by advancing an approach that integrates deliberative methods for articulating the multiple values of ecosystem services affected by marine and coastal management decisions.
Source: R. Lopes and N. Videira (2013); “Valuing marine and coastal ecosystem services: An integrated participatory framework”, Ocean & Coastal Management, Volume 84, November 2013, Pages 153 – 162; Available online under: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2013.08.001