Welcome to PAP/RAC Mediterranean Coastal Alert! This newsletter is regularly updated monthly. It contains abstracts of selected current articles and archives on various environmental themes, in particular those dealing with all aspects of coastal issues. The selection is made from the articles published in the leading international scientific journals. This newsletter is an excellent way of keeping you updated with coastal studies and processes.
The Integrated Coastal Zone Management protocol of the Barcelona Convention sets governance objectives for countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea. This protocol emphasizes collaborative approaches to acknowledge the role of local people in coastal management. Evaluating the quality of governance processes is critical if coastal zone values are to be effectively managed in times of global climate change. This study examined the structure and attributes of collaborative governance networks in two Mediterranean deltas, the Camargue (France) and Gediz Delta (Turkey). A deliberative social catchment sampling was used to target actors with physical, cultural, social or economic ties. Forty-five different organizations/professions were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire to identify the frequency and quality of contacts, information flows, and subject matter relevant to natural resource management. There were higher levels of degree centrality and reciprocal ties in the Camargue, while the Gediz Delta had a greater homogeneity of actors, with one centralized influential actor. Civil society played a greater role in the Camargue network, and government organizations were more central in the Gediz Delta. The differences between the two sites call into question the use of the same integrated management strategies and suggest the need to acknowledge the importance of existing governance models and relationships within local contexts.
Keywords: Camargue; Conservation strategies; Gediz; Governance; Integrated Coastal Zone Management; Social network analysis; Turkey.
Source: L. Ernoul and A. Wardell-Johnson (2013); “Governance in integrated coastal zone management: a social networks analysis of cross-scale collaboration”, Environmental Conservation, Volume 40, Issue 03, September 2013, pp 231-240; http://dx.doi:10.1017/S0376892913000106; Received: 2 February, 2012; Accepted: 24 February, 2013; Published Online: 26 April, 2013.
Coastal ecosystems, particularly intertidal wetlands and reefs (coral and shellfish), can play a critical role in reducing the vulnerability of coastal communities to rising seas and coastal hazards, through their multiple roles in wave attenuation, sediment capture, vertical accretion, erosion reduction and the mitigation of storm surge and debris movement. There is growing understanding of the array of factors that affect the strength or efficacy of these ecosystem services in different locations, as well as management interventions which may restore or enhance such values. Improved understanding and application of such knowledge will form a critical part of coastal adaptation planning, likely reducing the need for expensive engineering options in some locations, and providing a complementary tool in hybrid engineering design. Irrespective of future climate change, coastal hazards already impact countless communities and the appropriate use of ecosystem-based adaptation strategies offers a valuable and effective tool for present-day management. Maintaining and enhancing coastal systems will also support the continued provision of other coastal services, including the provision of food and maintenance of coastal resource dependent livelihoods.
Source: M. D. Spalding, S. Ruffo, C. Lacambra, I. Meliane, L. Zeitlin Hale, C. C. Shepard and M. W. Beck (2013); “The role of ecosystems in coastal protection: Adapting to climate change and coastal hazards”, Ocean & Coastal Management, In Press, Corrected Proof; Available Online: 15 October, 2013; http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2013.09.007
The oceans play a vital role in the global carbon cycle, regulate climate and temperature, provide food security and support the livelihoods of billions of people around the globe, especially in coastal areas (where over half the global population resides) and in small island states, where some of the most vulnerable populations rely on marine resources. However, the provision of these life-sustaining services is at risk—climate change and ocean acidification are already affecting marine ecosystems and coastal populations, threatening the ability of the oceans to continue providing economic resources and environmental services on which we so critically depend. Citing evidence of these key points, this paper calls for improved governance, the use of ecosystem-based approaches in coastal and ocean management, and urgency in transition to a low-carbon economy. With enhanced governance frameworks and a reliance on science and best practices, we can improve food security, enhance ecosystem resilience, secure sustainable livelihoods, and provide man-made and, perhaps more importantly, natural protections to threats to human health and environmental security from rising seas, acidifying oceans, coastal hazards and extreme weather events. The oceans play a vital role in combating climate change impacts, which, as much current evidence shows, will be more extensive and disastrous than previously forecast by international experts. It is urgent that the international community concertedly and decisively act to protect this function, including with the improvement of climate change cost estimates and development of financing mechanisms. We must act to increase resilience of key ocean and coastal ecosystems that provide shoreline and infrastructure protection, water quality maintenance, food security, and livelihood support. In effect, we must act to protect our own security through “ocean security”.
Source: J. Mendler de Suarez, B. Cicin-Sain, K. Wowk, R. Payet and O. Hoegh-Guldberg (2013); “Ensuring survival: Oceans, climate and security”, Ocean & Coastal Management, In Press, Corrected Proof; Available Online: 24 September, 2013; http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2013.08.007
This work investigates the shoreline changes affecting the beaches between the resort towns of Alghero and Fertilia, on the northwest coast of Sardinia, Italy, following recent planned expansion and dredging of the main harbours. A thirty-year historical shoreline time-series and sediment grain-size changes along the beach are analysed, in order to obtain recent evidence of erosional/accretional trends. Shoreline position change rates are quantified and discussed in relation to the history of coastal development and to Posidonia oceanica seagrass litter management. This study shows that, as a whole, the sediment budget of the beach is maintained, and the total area of shoreline accretion is slightly larger than the area of retreat. However over 60% of the total 4 670 m of shoreline is retreating, mainly in the most valuable sectors of the littoral for stakeholders. The shoreline in the areas closest to the two harbour breakwaters, which were extended during the 1980s, is advancing at a rate of up to 2.8 m yr−1. Areas closer to the seawall of Punta del Paru are retreating, at a rate of up to 1 m yr−1, and the nearby dune fields are eroding. The natural dunes at Maria Pia beach are acting as a source of sand to the littoral. The use of beach-cast seagrass materials for coastal protection is widely recognised in Sardinia. This study highlights that the choice of locations for seagrass debris dumping is extremely important, particularly in a closed, largely urbanised, sedimentary system.
Source: E. Manca, V. Pascucci, M. Deluca, A. Cossu and S. Andreucci (2013)¸ “Shoreline evolution related to coastal development of a managed beach in Alghero, Sardinia, Italy”, Ocean & Coastal Management, In Press, Corrected Proof; Available Online: 8 October, 2013; http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2013.09.008